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The Second Byzantine Empire is a state covering most of Anatolia and the Greek peninsula. A federal state composed of the Province of Hellas, Province of Turkey, and the Imperial Capital Province, the Second Byzantine Empire has been upheld as an example of successfully uniting two ethnic groups under one federal government.
Names of the Empire
The Greeks tend to refer to the Empire as the "Roman Empire" or as "Romania", similar to what the inhabitants of the First Byzantine Empire called themselves and their nation. The Turks, on the other hand, prefer "Byzantine Empire" or "Turkey". Internationally, the country is most commonly referred to as "Greece" or "Byzantium".
Government of the Empire
The Second Byzantine Empire is a constitutional monarchy, nominally ruled by an Emperor who resides in the Dolmabahçe Palace in Constantinople/Istanbul. The Empire is governed by a Senate (Σύγκλητος/Senato), a unicameral 175-member body consisting of 75 members from Hellas, 75 members from Turkey, 20 members from the Imperial Capital Province, and 5 members appointed by the Emperor (who can not be appointed to the office of Prime Minister). Customarily, a Greek PM is followed by a Turkish one, and vice versa. The deputy Prime Minister is always of the opposite nationality as the Prime Minister.
There has been some controversy historically about the Ottoman Sultan being replaced by a Greek Emperor. To resolve this matter, the Sultan (Ertuğrul Osman V) has retained the title of Caliph and is the legal head of state of the Province of Turkey, while the Emperor is the head of state of Hellas (under the title of King Constantine II of Greece). The Head of State of the Imperial Capital Province is the Mayor of Constantinople/Istanbul (Kadir Topbaş). Together these three Heads of State form the State Council, which technically must approve all bills passed by the Senate.