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In this timeline, the Confederate States of America not only survives, but thrives.
The POD is inspired by James M. MacPherson's essay/short story If the Lost Order Hadn't Been Lost.
POD-The "Lost Order," the document detailing Robert E. Lee's plan for the Confederate offensive in Maryland, is not lost. Lee is able to reach Hagerstown, where he stops to resupply his men with captured Union supplies and allow stragglers to catch up.
After lingering at Hagerstown for a week-while the Union forces struggle to locate their Confederate counterparts-the Army of Northern Virginia is on the move again. They cross the state line into Pennsylvania. On Oct.3, the Confederates reach Harrisburg and burn the Pennsylvania Railroad bridge over the Susquehanna, severing a major Union supply line. Having taken care of that, Lee moves the Army to Gettysburg, where the Confederates dig in. By Oct. 8, Union scouts have found the Confederates firmly entrenched in Gettysburg. General George McClellan launches an offensive on the Confederate positions. A bloody battle ensues. The battle ends when General McClellan is killed by a stray bullet to the head, causing the Union forces to either surrender or flee the battlefield.
Meanwhile, in Kentucky, Confederate forces secure Kentucky and install a state government loyal to the Confederacy. The government of Maryland, fearing another Confederate invasion, decides to cut its losses and join the CSA-cutting off Washington D.C. The Union government flees to Philadelphia.
By now, Northern citizens have become extremely demoralized by the recent reversals in Union fortune. In Europe, Britain and France formally recognize the CSA. In the November mid-term elections, pro-peace Democrats establish control of Congress.
General Lee, emboldened by his recent successes, feels confident enough to send a bold proposal to the Confederate government-a plan for the abolition of slavery. In a letter to Confederate president Jefferson Davis, Lee lays out his plan. While the current generation of blacks shall remain in slavery, all blacks born on and after January 1, 1863 shall be free. Davis initially hesitates - he does not want to upset the slaveholders for whom the war is supposedly being fought-but he eventually comes around and agrees to introduce the idea to the Confederate Congress. In a speech to the Confederate House of Representatives, Davis argues that abolishing slavery would cement the CSA's alliance with Britain and France-both of whom are anti-slavery-and take away the North's moral high ground. Davis's skilled rhetoric works, and the bill becomes law.
The year begins with great joy in the South, and great sorrow in the North.
In the South, Davis's Emancipation Act goes into effect. The law is greeted with enthusiasm by many blacks, who know that from now on their children will not have to experience the injustices of the South's "peculiar institution." The slaveholders are shocked and outraged, but there is not much they can do except blow smoke in protest. Some slave owners would take up arms and form militias against the government they felt betrayed them, those these groups would fade by the end of the 1870s. The blacks born on Jan. 1 gain the moniker "Freedom's Babies."
Things are not so happy in the North. The Northern government has been humiliated. On Jan, 20, 1863, the Union Congress votes to formally recognize the Confederate States of America. Lincoln balks, but he knows that all hope of recovering the South has been lost, and he acknowledges the South's victory.
On Feb. 1, the Treaty of Richmond finalizes the CSA's independence. The terms are humiliating for the North. The border states and the New Mexico territory are surrendered to the Confederacy. The Indian Territory is ceded to the CSA as an Amerindian homeland. All Union states and territories bordering the CSA are demilitarized in order to keep the Northern Army from menacing the South. The Northern Army itself is limited to a certain number of men to reduce the North's military power. The only concession the Union gets is the state of West Virginia, a collection of Virginian counties who opposed Virginia's secession.
To compensate for the loss of the South - and to get revenge on Britain for supporting the CSA - Lincoln authorizes a US invasion of British North America. The British are caught off guard and the US is quickly able to secure the territory. At the Treaty of Aroostook, Britain recognizes US sovereignty over all of the captured land. British North America is divided into the State of Canada (OTL Ontario), State of Quebec, Rupertsland Territory(later divided into the states of East and West Rupertsland), State of Madison (OTL British Columbia), State of Newfoundland, Nunavut (OTL Northwest Territory), Maritime Territory (OTL Maritime Provinces), and the State of Labrador. lincoln wins re-election in the North, thanks to his victory in the Canadian War.
Things are relatively quiet in the CSA. There is still some unrest over President Davis's decision regarding slavery. Many Southerners accept the inevitable end of slavery, while others try to get revenge for the law by sterilizing their slaves so that they cannot spawn any "free niggers."
In Mexico, Emperor Maximilian Hapsburg is overthrown and escapes to Austria.
The CSA buys the Netherlands Antilles and the eastern half of Hispaniola as homes for former slaves.
Napoleon III of France, concerned about the rising influence of Prussia in Germany, declares war. The German states unite against France, and Napoleon is beaten back. The states of Germany unite into the German Empire, with King Wilhelm I of Prussia becoming Emperor of the Germans.
To help pay his post-war debts, Napoleon III agrees to sell California Baja to the CSA.
Russia sells Alaska to the CSA.
In Europe, the Hungarians - inspired by the Confederates - separate from Austria, followed by Bohemia and Moravia. Galicia is incorporated into Russian Poland. Maximilian Hapsburg - having just been dethroned in Mexico - is offered the throne of Hungary, and accepts.
Robert E. Lee is elected President of the Confederate States as a member of the Confederate Nationalist Party. He seeks a balance between a strong central government and the states-rights premise upon which the CSA was founded.
Charles Sumner is elected President of the US.
Charles Sumner's presidency is marked by tense relations between the USA and CSA. Many Northern abolitionists are sore at having their cause taken away by their enemy.
The CSA purchases Jamaica and the Bahamas from Britain.
The Hapsburgs, bereft of their empire, begrudgingly accept Wilhelm's offer to join Germany. Austria becomes a part of the Greater German Empire. Germany pledges to protect the former Austrian realms in eastern Europe.
CS President Robert E. Lee dies in office and is followed by Vice President Judah P. Benjamin.
Charles Sumner, citing health troubles, declines running for re-election. Ulysses S. Grant is elected president of the USA.
In the CSA, the Ku Klux Klan forms later than OTL, but is more vicious in its terrorist activities. President Benjamin is encouraged to run for his own term, but he declines.
James Longstreet is elected CSA President on the ticket of the Confederalist Democratic Party. He pursues a policy of industrialization popularly known as the "New South" program.
Due to the corruption in the Grant Administration, the Republican Party drops Grant and chooses Rutherford B. Hayes as their candidate. Hayes wins the election by the skin of his teeth.
Hayes pursues a policy of rapprochement with the CSA, led by President James Longstreet.
In Europe, Britain signs an agreement with Germany not to intervene in continental affairs.
Wade Hampton is elected President of the Confederate States.
President Hayes decides not to run for re-election. The Republican Party nominates James Garfield. Garfield wins the election handily.
Hungary cedes Slovakia to Moravia.
Garfield is assassinated after just a few months in office. He is succeeded by Chester A. Arthur.
The Triple Kingdom of Czechoslovakia is created from the union of the thrones of Bohemia and Moravia. Slovakia is promoted to a third kingdom.s
Fitzhugh Lee elected CSA President.
The Maritime Territory is divided into the states of Jefferson (OTL New Brunswick and Nova Scotia), Charlotte Island (OTL Prince Edward Island), and Newfoundland.
German Kaiser Wilhelm I dies. He is succeeded by Friedrich III, who in this TL, does not develop throat cancer. Friedrich brings many reforms to Germany and seeks friendly relations with Britain.
Germany, Britain, and Italy form the triple alliance.
By this year, slavery has ceased to exist in the CSA. Blacks are still subject to discrimination. Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina pass "Jim Crow" laws institutionalizing segregation.
John B. Gordon is elected CSA President.
Florida becomes the first Confederate state to pass laws officially banning racial discrimination.
Hawaii is annexed by the CSA after the islanders overthrow the dictator that had seized the Hawaiian throne in 1870.
Tennessee and Arkansas pass anti-discrimination laws.
Benjamin Tillman is elected President of the CSA. He is a strong supporter of the segregation laws passed by the state governments of the Deep South, and blocks any Congressional action to stop segregation.
Spanish-American War fought between Spain and CSA over Spanish misrule of Cuba. Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines are all annexed by the CSA. The Filipinos are skeptical about Confederate rule at first, but they are eventually persuaded that government by the Confederacy will be beneficial.
US President William McKinley is assassinated, and succeeded by Theodore Roosevelt. Roosevelt, like many in the US, is deeply unnerved by the rising power of the CSA, yet he continues to maintain amicable relations with the country.
France, Russia, and Spain form the Triple Coalition to act as a counterbalance to the Triple Alliance.
Texas bans discrimination.
Kaiser Friedrich III dies and is succeeded by his son Wilhelm II.
The CSA under Benjamin Tillman purchases the Isthmus of Panama from Colombia and begins work on the Panama Canal. Some USA politicians are alarmed and agitate for war, fearing that the CSA will use their growing power to conquer the North. Roosevelt, however, sees the folly of such an idea and rejects it.
W.F.H. Lee is elected CSA President.
Louisiana bans segregation.
The Russo-Japanese War occurs as in OTL.
Guatemala is annexed by the CSA after its dictator Manuel Estrada Cabera is overthrown by a CSA-backed revolt.
Virginia, Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri pass anti-discrimination laws.
Napoleon IV is assassinated and succeeded by his son Alphonse.
Henry Ford introduces the Model T. The new automobile would soon revolutionize private transportation.
Jacob M. Dickinson is elected CSA President.
North Carolina passes anti-discrimination laws. By this point, only the "Deepest South"-the states of Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina-still clings to institutionalized racism, and the rest of the nation generally views this region as backwards and reactionary.
On the 50th anniversary of the Treaty of Richmond, the CSA passes the Civil Rights Amendment to the Confederate Constitution, banning ethnic discrimination throughout the country (although the only states still practicing Jim Crow were the four states that came up with the laws). The law is less radical than OTL's Civil Rights Act-while de jure segregation is banned, freedom of association allows segregation by choice to go on. The act was passed not only for blacks, but the native Latino populations in the CSA's new Latin American states. President Dickinson hails the amendment as "opening a new chapter in our nation's history-a chapter of hope and equality."
Russian Czar is assassinated by a Polish nationalist. Russia suspects Hungary-which has its own interests in Poland-of being behind the assassination. After Hungary refuses Russian demands, Russia declares war on Hungary. Germany declares war on Russia. France and Spain declare war on Germany. Britain declares war on France after French troops march through Belgium to attack Germany. World War I has begun.
Confederate President Dickinson is concerned about the war on Europe, he decides not to get involved unless the conflict poses a threat to Confederate national security.
Spanish forces besiege Gibraltar. In Africa, colonial forces clash. The Ottoman Empire joins the Coalition. The French government evacuates from Paris after it is determined to be vulnerable. and relocates to Orleans.
In the CSA. Woodrow Wilson is elected president. He watches events in Europe with concern, but decides not to join unless the CSA is threatened.
The climax of World War I.
In February, internal revolution forces Russia to drop out of the war. In March, an agreement between France and the USA is uncovered. In return for American help in Europe, France and Spain would help the USA reconquer the CSA. Although the USA does not accept the deal, the discovery heightens pro-war feelings in the CSA. In May, Mexico allies with France and attempts to retake Texas and New Mexico. In response, President Wilson requests a declaration of war from Congress. On June 1st, the CSA declares war on France, Spain, and Mexico.
The first order of business for the CSA is the pacification of Mexico. The Confederate Army launches a two-pronged assault on Mexico, sending in forces from Texas and Guatemala. By August, all of Mexico is under Confederate control.
In September, Confederate forces break the Spanish siege of Gibraltar. By December, the Iberian Peninsula has become a battlefield. Portugal-due to its longstanding alliace with England-joins the war on the side of the Alliance.
Spain surrenders on New Year's Day. Allied forces cross the Pyrenees into southern France. After a long march through French territory, the Alliances reaches Orleans in August and places the city under siege. Italy, meanwhile, has captured French land up to the Rhone River. In November French Emperor Alphonse-who has spent the past year in Nantes-flees to Luxembourg. A republican government takes over France and agrees to an armistice.
The Treaty of Bremen brings an official end to World War I. France-now the Third French Republic-is blamed for the war and receives harsh punishment. Restrictions are placed on France's military. Provence and Corsica are ceded to Italy, and the regions of Alsace-Lorraine and Burgundy are ceded to Germany as a demilitarized area. Calais is ceded to Britain, and the land east of the Somme River is ceded to Belgium. French West Africa is split between Germany and Britain. The Congo-which, unlike OTL, was claimed by France instead of Belgium-was ceded to Britain, allowing the British to being construction of the Cape-to-Cairo railroad. The French overseas departments of Guadeloupe and Martinique in the Caribbean are handed over to the CSA, and French Guiana is given to Germany. French Indochina is split into the independent nations of Dai Viet, Cambodia, and Laos. Algeria is split between, Britain, Germany, and Italy.
Woodrow Wilson is concerned by the excessive vindictiveness of the treaty. He warns that anger stirred up by the terms may lead to trouble. His concerns are dismissed by the European powers, who are concerned with keeping France down.
The Ottoman Empire, for supporting France, is forced to cede Palestine and Syria to Britain. Kurdistan is granted independence.
Spain, for its part, is forced to give up suzerainty over Morocco. The enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla are incorporated into Gibraltar, and Equatorial Guinea is given to Germany.
In India, British army officer Reginald Dyer is executed for crimes against humanity after his unit opens fire on urarmed protestors in Amritsar. The execution is ordered by Punjab governor Winston Churchill. The prudent Churchill knew the incident would alienate the people of India and acted quickly to ameliorate public discontent and show that the British cared for the welfare of India. Dyer's execution is recognized as a saving throw for the British Empire, and Churchill becomes a rising star in Imperial politics.
The League of Nations is set up. Although Wilson hopes to gain American support for the organization, Congress is firm in its opposition, and the CSA stays out of the LoG.
This decade is a boom time for the CSA. The remaining nations of Central America, seeing the prosperity brought to Mexico and Guatemala by Confederate rule, apply for statehood in the CSA. Unprecedented economic gains are made. The remainder of the Caribbean islands are sold to the CSA by Britain. Blacks make great progress towards integration into Confederate society. The Confederate Nationalists dominate politics, with Carter Glass elected president in 1921 followed by Joseph T. Robinson in 1927.
In Europe, however, the nations continue to struggle with post-war economic troubles. France seethes with public anger at the harsh terms of the Treaty of Bremen. In th midst of the discontent, a fascist movement begins in the French political underground, led by WWI veteran François Darlan. Fascist movements spring up in other European countries as many Europeans begin to lose faith in the power of democracy to solve problems. Communists win the Russian Civil War in 1920, establishing the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Joseph Stalin takes power in 1924, and begins a merciless campaign of political repression and purges.
In the USA, fascist feelings begin to surface. The North's jealousy of Southern prosperity pushes many people into radicalism. The leader of this movement is Theodore Roosevelt Jr., the son of former president Theodore Roosevelt. Theodore Jr. had served in the French Foreign Legion in World War I, and continued to visit France after the war ended. Soon, Theodore Jr. was exposed to fascist ideals, and begin to believe fascism was what the United States needed. His hatred of the South was intense, and he hoped to reconquer it when he had his chance at power.
The stocks markets in New York City crash. The Great Depression begins. The Atlanta Stock Exchange also drops but not nearly as much, thanks to less government involvement in business.
By this year, the entire world is engulfed in economic free fall. Theodore Roosevelt Jr. and his fascist wing of the Republican party comes to power in the US general elections.
In the CSA, Franklin D. Roosevelt (whose parents migrated to the CSA in 1881) is elected president as a Confederalist Democrat. Roosevelt begins a "New Deal" to get the Confederate economy back on its feet.
In France, the fascists come to power in elections. François Darlan runs for President against Philippe Petain-a former French marshal in WWI. When Darlan's presidential campaign fails, he convinces Petain to appoint him Prime Minister.
In Germany, Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicates due to failing health. His son Wilhelm III becomes Kaiser.
French president Petain dies of strychnine poisoning. Darlan assumes all political power, declaring himself "Chef Supreme" (French for "supreme leader") of France.
Fascist governments come to power in Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Turkey.
France passes the Tours Laws, initiating harsh discrimination against French Jews. The Fascists blame the Jews for contributing to France's defeat in WWI.
The fascist states of Europe create the Pan-Fascist Organization. The nations agree on the subjugation of non-fascist nations-and the extermination of European Jewry.
The French army, rejuvenated by Louis Napoleon, takes back the demilitarized area between France and Germany. Germany does nothing out of a fear of starting another war.
The Empire of Japan invades China.
The United States of America declares war on the Confederacy in November. Fighting breaks out along the USA/CSA border.
France demands the trans-Somme region from Belgium. Britain and Germany pressure Belgium to give in to French demands. At the Treaty of Caen, the Sonneland is formally ceded to France. Soon, the rest of Francophone Belgium falls to France, and a puppet state is set up in Flanders.
Japan allies itself with the Fascist Powers.
Fascist Poland signs a non-aggression pact with the Soviet Union.
France demands Provence and Corsica from Italy. When Italy refuses, France launches a foudre de guerre (lightning war) against Italy. Britain and Germany declare war on France. World War II begins.
Italy resists bravely but ultimately falls to the French onslaught.
France, Poland, and Czechoslavakia launch a three-pronged assault on Germany. The three armies move quickly conquering German territory. By the summer, Saxony-Anhalt, Bradenburg, and Pomerania are the only German states that have not fallen to the fascists. In the conquered states, a resistance group called the Werewolves lead the struggle against fascist occupation. The Werewolves are commanded by WWI veteran Adolf Hitler. The Netherlands and Luxembourg are occupied by France.
Hungary invades Serbia and Romania.
In September, France launches Operation Sealion - the invasion of Britain. The British, led by Prime Minister Winston Churchill, beat back the invasion in the Battle of Britain.
Poland and Hungary launch a joint invasion of the Soviet Union. At first, the two armies make swift progress-but the Russian winter sets in hard, stalling the offensive.
In North America, the Confederate forces begin to turn the tide against the US. By April, Philadelphia has been captured. Theodore Roosevelt Jr. is caught in Allentown. He is tried for crimes against peace, and war crimes are added after the horrific treatment of Confederate POWs is revealed. Roosevelt is found guilty and sentenced to death. He will eventually be executed by hanging in October 1942. The territory of the United States is placed under Confederate jurisdiction until a plebiscite can be held.
In Europe, France invades Spain and Portugal. The Republic of Iberia is set up as a French puppet state led by Francisco Franco. Meanwhile, the Pan-Fascist Organization meets in Prague to set in motion the Final Solution-the extermination of Jews in the member states and the occupied territories.
Turkey launches an invasion of Greece and Bulgaria.
In the Pacific, Japan seizes the Dutch East Indies, Dai Viet, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, and Malaya in successive order. The Japanese make a mistake when they bomb the Confederate Navy at Pearl Harbor. The CSA declares war on Japan. The Pan-Fascist Organization in turn declares war on the CSA.
The CSA gets its first taste of the war in the deserts of North Africa. A series of battles are fought against French forces commanded by the "Desert Fox" Charles de Gaulle. The Allied forces eventually score a major victory at El Alamein in Egypt.
In eastern Europe, Soviet forces are locked in a stalemate with the combined Polish-Hungarian forces.
In the Pacific, the Confederate Navy engages the Japanese. At first, the Japanese have the upper hand, but a Confederate victory at Midway Island begins to turn the tide.
The year begins with a great milestone in the struggle against the Fascist Powers. The Soviet Union wins a victory against Fascist forces at Stalingrad.
In the Balkans, the Greeks push Turkey out of the Peloponnesus.
The Allies form a plan to liberate Italy. In June, Allied forces land in Sicily. By the autumn, Rome is in Allied hands. With Italy free, attention is turned to Spain. The Allies begin to formulate plans for the invasion of the Iberian peninsula.
In the Pacific, the Confederate navy continues to beat back the Japanese.
The German army, which had been holed up in the center of Germany for four years, begins to push out the Fascist occupiers with Scandinavian help. The Low Countries are liberated by Germano-Danish forces. Leader of the Werewolves Adolf Hitler is elected Chancellor of Germany for his help in the liberation of Germany.
The Allies launch D-Day-the invasion of Spain. Allied forces based in Gibraltar land in southern Spain and push north. In May, Madrid is liberated. The Anglo-Confederate forces are greeted with great joy by Spanish citizens. Franco and other Fascist collaborators are executed, and the Republic of Iberia is separated back into Spain and Portugal.
In the Pacific, the Chinese and Koreans drive out the Japanese. Other conquered territories are liberated by the Confederate Navy, and the Japanese home islands are within sight.
In eastern Europe, Soviet forces push out Polish and Hungarian forces. By the end of the year, both nations have been occupied by the Soviet Union.
In December, Allied Forces reach the Pyrenees. The last French offensive, the Battle of the Bulge, begins.
In January, Turkey becomes the first Fascist Power to surrender in the Treaty of Athens. All Turkish territory west of the 32nd parallel is ceded to Greece.
In Eastern Europe, Czechoslovakia becomes the last Fascist nation to be occupied by the Soviets.
In the Pyrenees Mountains, the Battle of the Bulge finally ends in an Allied victory. As the Allies begin their advance into French territory, Darlan institutes a scorched-earth policy. However, many French officers are unable to carry it out or refuse to carry it out. As the Allies advance, they discover concentration camps holding Jews from France and the occupied territories. Many Jewish prisoners have died in these camps from hard labor, and the survivors are in very poor physical condition. The sight of the corpses and emaciated people shocks the soldiers, and many concentration camp personnel are executed on the spot. Citizens of communities near the camps, who plead ignorance regarding the camps' existence, are marched through the camps and made to look at the horrors. In eastern Europe, Soviet soldiers uncover even more horrifying death camps in Poland, designed for the specific purpose of executing Jewish prisoners. The full extent of Holocaust, as the campaign against Europe's Jews comes to be called, is revealed. Francois Darlan is captured in April, and the remainder of the French government surrenders on May 1, which is declared V-E Day.
In the Pacific, the CSA prepares to invade Japan. The Confederate command, however, is concerned that the Japanese-whose bushido code of military conduct forbids surrender-may put up an extremely stiff resistance and possibly decimate any occupying forces. The Confederates have an ace up their sleeve, however-the first atomic bomb is detonated in New Mexico. President Truman decides to use the weapon on Japan. Hiroshima and Nagasaki are both hit by the highly destructive weapons, resulting in massive casualties. Following the strikes, a dispute erupts in the Japanese government between those who want to continue the fight and those who want to make peace. The pro-peace faction, under the leadership of Emperor Hirohito, wins out, and Japan surrenders on Sept. 2, V-J Day. World War II officially comes to an end.
Although the war has ended, not all is well. The Soviet Union has occupied all of Eastern Europe up to the German border. Although Stalin initially promises to allow democratic governments to take over the occupied countries, he eventually reneges on his promise and sets up communist governments in Poland, Hungary. Czechoslovakia, and Romania.
Meanwhile, the Allies ponder how to deal with France. They know they cannot be as harsh as they were at the Treaty of Bremen, but the French Fascist atrocities demand some kind of punishment. In the Le Mans Trials of 1946, the upper echelon of the French Fascist Movement is put on trial. Eleven Fascist higher-ups are sentenced to death. Darlan himself is the first to be executed, on August 14, 1946. The Fourth French Republic is set up.
In North America, a plebiscite is held to determine the fate of the Confederate-occupied United States. The people vote 51% to join the CSA. The unification of North America under the CSA is complete.
In Britain, Prime Minister Churchill-as a reward to the lands of the British Empire for helping to defeat the Fascists-introduces a plan to liberalize the British Empire. The Union of the British Realms (UBR) is created, a superstate composed of Great Britain and its colonies and associated states. The union is made to give the colonies a free hand in managing their internal affairs while cooperating on matters relevant to all of the realms.
In the Middle East, the UBR establishes the Dominion of Israel in 1948 as a homeland for Jews after the revelations of the Holocaust. It is estimated that six million Jews were killed by the Fascist regimes in Europe. The term genocide is coined to describe the massacre. The new nation is established in the part of Palestine west of the Jordan River. The half east of the Jordan becomes the Arab Kingdom of Palestine ruled by the Hashemite dynasty. The rest of the Arab world, united under the al-Saud dynasty, tries to destroy the new nation, but they fail when the Palestinian kingdom sides with Israel along with the rest of the UBR.
In China, a civil war erupts in 1946 between the nationalists, led by Chiang Kai-shek, and the communists led by Mao Zedong. The war ends in 1949 with the two factions partitioning China between themselves. The 35th parallel is established as the border between the Republic of China in the south, and the People's Republic of China in the north. Korea is also divided along north-south lines between communist and democratic governments.
As the world becomes divided into communist and democratic camps, the Soviet Union tests their first atomic bomb in 1949, This is considered the true beginning of the Cold War.
The CSA joins with Britain, France, Spain, Italy, Germany, Holland, and Belgium to create the North Atlantic Defense Association (NADA), promising to assist one another in the event of another war. The formation of NADA is motivated mostly by the rising power of the Soviet Union.
The government of North Korea, looking to unite the Korean peninsula under communism, declares war on South Korea. Fighting breaks out at the 38th parallel, the border between the two nations.
Strom Thurmond is elected president of the CSA. He vows to help the people of South Korea, sending troops to the Korean peninsula. The Korean War begins in earnest.
North China under Mao Zedong enters the war on the North Korean's side. In response, South China enters the war on the side of the SK/CSA alliance.
After a long stalemate, the NK/North Chinese forces are pushed to within a few miles of the North Korean-Chinese border. The North Koreans surrender. The Korean War comes to an end with Korea united under a free government.
President Thurmond's approval rating shoots to 80% in the polls thanks to the victory in Korea. The CSA celebrates the triumph of liberty over communism.
Joseph Stalin dies a bitter man due to the defeat of communism in North Korea. He is succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev. Khrushchev places less emphasis on setting up communist regimes and more emphasis on protecting the extant communist states.
A civil war begins in Dai Viet, between the government and communist rebels.
By this time, the integration of the former United States into the Confederacy is complete. Although there is a small bit of lingering resentment, most citizens of the conquered territories are glad to be reunited under "One America."
The Warsaw Pact is formed.
An uprising against communism occurs in Hungary. The Soviet Union crushes the rebellion. NADA leaders protest but do little else for fear of starting war.
J. William Fulbright is elected President of the CSA.
The Lebanon crisis erupts when a communist insurgency springs up in the British dominion. The Soviet Union threatens to intervene on the communists' behalf. After a short standoff, the Soviets see the folly of their position and back down.
The Fourth French Republic collapses due to political instability. The French decide to restore the Orleanist Kingdom of the French. Henri d'Orleans is crowned King Henry VI on June 1. The Charter of 1830-the constitution of the July Monarchy, the first Orleanist monarchy-is reinstated as the official constitution of France. The Orleans Restoration is seen as the last step in France's recovery from fascism.
Venezuelan communists stage a coup. The CSA is alarmed, due to the presence of a communist state so close to the Confederacy.