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The Great War (sometimes called the First Great War) was a global war centered in Europa that began on 28 July 1908 and lasted until 11 November 1912. More than nine million combatants and seven million civilians died as a result of the war, a casualty rate exacerbated by the belligerents' technological and industrial sophistication, and tactical stalemate. It was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, paving the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved.
The war drew in all the world's economic great powers, which were assembled in two opposing alliances: the Grand Alliance (Britannia, Greece, Netherlands, Bavaria) and the Central Powers of Germany, France, Austria-Hungary, and Russia. These alliances were reorganized and expanded as more nations entered the war: Denmark, Savoy, Italy, and the United States joined the Grand Alliance, and Sweden-Norway, Portugal, Pacifica, and Mexika the Central Powers. Ultimately, more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history.
The war ended with victory for the Grand Alliance. Prussia, Russia, France, Austria-Hungary, and Egypt lost territories across the world, with their colonies either gaining independence (Ethiopa) or being gained by members of the Grand Alliance. In Europa, they lost land to facilitate the creation of new nations such as Poland, Hungary, Venice, Caucasia, and Ukraine. Also, Bavaria occupied Alsace-Lorraine and the Saarland and in the Middle East, Egyptian territory was reduced to create new nations, although they became mandates under the influence and protection of other Europan powers. However, in other places, such as Atlantis and Oceania, the status quo was essentially maintained. The war also led to massive civil unrest in Russia and eventually the Russian Revolution and eventually led to the Chinese Civil War in Asia.
During the Constantinople Peace conference, The Big Four (Britannia, Greece, the Netherlands, and the United States) imposed their terms in a series of treaties. The United Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such an appalling conflict. This aim, however, failed with weakened states, economic depression, renewed European nationalism, and the Prussian feeling of humiliation contributing to the rise of fascism, which spread to Austria and France. These conditions eventually contributed to the Second Great War.
The two main alliances of the war were formed out of several other alliances. The Grand Alliance was based in the Dutch-Britannic Dual Alliance and expanded to include Bavaria after the collapse of the German Confederation and the Franco-Bavarian War. This new alliance was called the Triple Alliance, which Greece joined after defeating Egypt in the late 19th century. The origins of the Central Powers lied in the relation between Austria and Germany, two German states. After French defeat in the Franco-Bavarian War, Otto von Bismarck led the creation of the Iron Pact, in which Austria and Germany allied with France against Bavaria and the Netherlands. The Iron Pact expanded to include Russia after it was defeated by Britannia and Greece in the Crimean War.
In 1908, Austria-Hungary annexed the territories of Bosnia and Herzegovina. This angered the Kingdom of Serbia and its patron, the Kingdom of Greece. This led to a month of diplomatic manouvering called the July Crisis. It resulted in Serbia declaring war on Austria-Hungary, who responded in kind. Shortly after, Greece began to mobilize against Austria-Hungary, followed by Russia threatening war if Greece attacked. When Greece joined Serbia, Russia declared a state of war against Greece. Germany was initially reluctant to declare war, but when the Netherlands joined Greece, Germany declared war against the Netherlands, followed by France. Britannia then declared war on France and Germany, officially starting the Great War.