|The Great War|
|Date||April 27, 1954 - February 7, 1956|
|Result||Grand Alliance Pyrrhic victory; Slavery abolished; foundation of the Imperial German Union; development of nuclear bombs and satellites; eventual formation of the League of Nations.|
The Great War was a world war centered in Europe that began on 27 April 1954 and lasted until 7 February 1956. In Asia, it was initially called the European War. More than nine million combatants were killed; a casualty rate exacerbated by the belligerents' technological and industrial sophistication, and tactical stalemate. It was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, paving the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved.
The war drew in all the world's economic great powers, eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Grand Alliance and the Central Pact. Although Italy had also been a member of the Holy Alliance alongside Russia and Austria-Hungary, it did not join the Central Pact, as Austria-Hungary had taken the offensive against the terms of the alliance. These alliances were both reorganized and expanded as more nations entered the war: Italy and Japan joined the Alliance, and the Belgium and Bulgaria join the Central Pact. Ultimately, more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history.
The Great War altered the political alignment and social structure of the world. The League of Nations (LoN) was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The great powers that were involved the war - the United Kingdom, the German Union, and Japan - became the permanent members of the League of Nations' Security Council.
Political and military alliance
During the 19th century, the major European powers went to great lengths to maintain a balance of power throughout Europe, resulting in the existence of a complex network of political and military alliances throughout the continent by 1900. These began in 1815, with the Holy Alliance between Prussia, Russia, and Austria. When Germany was united in 1871, Prussia became part of the new German nation. Soon after, in October 1873, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck negotiated the League of the Three Emperors (German: Dreikaiserbund) between the monarchs of Austria-Hungary, Russia and Germany. This agreement failed because Austria-Hungary and Russia could not agree over Balkan policy, leaving Germany and Austria-Hungary in an alliance formed in 1879, called the Dual Alliance. This was seen as a method of countering Russian influence in the Balkans as the Ottoman Empire continued to weaken. This alliance expanded, in 1882, to include Italy in what became the Triple Alliance. Bismarck had especially worked to hold Russia at Prussia's side in an effort to avoid a two-front war with France and Russia. When Wilhelm II ascended to the throne as German Emperor (Kaiser), Bismarck was compelled to retire and his system of alliances was gradually de-emphasised. For example, the Kaiser refused, in 1890, to renew the Reinsurance Treaty with Russia. Two years later, the Franco-Russian Alliance was signed to counteract the force of the Triple Alliance. In 1904, Britain signed a series of agreements with Franco-Spain, the Entente Cordiale, and in 1907, Britain and Russia signed the Anglo-Russian Convention. While these agreements did not formally ally Britain with France or Russia, they made British entry into any future conflict involving France or Russia a possibility, and the system of interlocking bilateral agreements became known as the Triple Entente
Russo-Japanese border conflict (1930s-40s)
These clashes convinced some factions in the Japanese government that they should focus on interfering the Russian government to avoid interference in the military ambitions and attack on the Russian Far East and Siberia, toward the holdings in the Alaska, and also prevented the Russian army from becoming a major combat force in Asia.
Great Slave Insurrection (1936-40)
During the Insurrection, Hitler and Mussolini lent military support to the Abolitionist rebels, led by General Francisco Franco. The Russian Empire supported the existing government, Franco-Spain. Over 30,000 foreign volunteers, known as the International Brigades, also fought against the Imperialists. Both Prussia and the Russia used this proxy war as an opportunity to test in combat their most advanced weapons and tactics. The bombing of Guernica by the Prussian Condor Legion in April 1937 heightened widespread concerns that the next major war would include extensive terror bombing attacks on civilians. The Abolishlists lost the civil war in April 1939. Charles de Gaulle, now dictator, concluded a major agreement with Russian Empire, formalizing the Central Pact.
German industrial and economic power had grown greatly after unification and the foundation of the Empire in 1871 following the Franco-Prussian War. From the mid-1890s on, the government of Wilhelm II used this base to devote significant economic resources for building up the Kaiserliche Marine (Imperial German Navy), established by Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz, in rivalry with the Holy Alliance Navy for world naval supremacy. As a result, each nation strove to out-build the other in capital ships. With the launch of HMS Dreadnought in 1906, the British Empire expanded on its significant advantage over its German rival. The arms race between Franco-Spain and Germany eventually extended to the rest of Europe, with all the major powers devoting their industrial base to producing the equipment and weapons necessary for a pan-European conflict. Between 1908 and 1913, the military spending of the European powers increased by 50%
Progress of the War
The first act of war took place on April 27, 1954, at 05:43 a.m., when Russian artillery fired upon Prussian positions in East Prussia. Soon after Franco-Spanish artillery fire came upon minor German allies in the west of Germany. An hour later, the southern border of the NAU came under fire, and the city of New Manchester was shelled by Franco-Spanish warships.
The American Campaign
Franco-Spanish and Imperial Mexican troops advanced north into the south of the North American Union. After capturing major cities in the southwest Franco-Spanish forces begin to move on to New Liverpool.
The Western Front
Franco-Spanish and minor German militia troops crossed the Rhine and marched toward the Prussians near Wesel and Rees.
The Eastern Front
Main Article: Battle of Tannenburg
The war in the east began with the Russian invasion of East Prussia, the heartland of the Prussian state. Initially, the Russian forces steamrollered over the Prussian forces. The first effort quickly turned to a defeat following the Battle of Tannenbrg in August 1954.
The Battle of Tannenberg was the first major setback for the Russian army. The entire Russian 2nd army was destroyed by the Prussian forces, skillfully led by Heinz Guderian and Erich Von Manstein. This upset the Russian timetable for the defeat of Prussia. The second incursion was completely successful, with the Russians controlling almost all of Galicia by the end of 1954. Under the command of Nikolai Ivanov and Aleksei Brusilov, the Russians won the Battle of Galicia in September and began the Siege of Przemyśl, the next fortress on the road toward Kraków.
The Caucasus Campaign
Only in the Caucasus were the forces of the Alliance initially successful. The Turks drove into Russia, intending to cut off Russia's supply of oil, was very successful in the initial stage of the war.
On December 7, 1954 the Russian Navy strikes two Japanese naval bases and bombs Kyoto as a major blow in the war against the Japanese war effort and recaptured Port Arthur.
Pact Forces Checked
In 1955 the Prussian command decided to make its main effort on the Eastern Front, and accordingly transferred considerable forces there. To eliminate the Russian and Austro-Hungarian threat the Grand Alliance began the campaign season of 1955 with the successful Gorlice-Tarnow Offensive in Galicia in May 1955. The offensive soon turned into a general advance and then a strategic retreat by the Russian army.
The Siege of New Liverpool Franco-Spanish and Mexican troops began a full siege on the city of New Liverpool August 19,1955. Colonial and British troops quickly retreat into the city and form a defensive perimeter around the city.
The Armenian Genocide
The Russian Army now marched into Turkey itself, fueled with hatred over the massacres of the Armenians. The Russian 11th Army drove toward the city of Erzurum.
War in the Sea and Air Soon, after a few bloody fights on land both sides move there forces to the air and sea. The powerful American and British RAF forces mobilized to strike against the retreating Central Pact forces in North America.
Alliance victory: 1956 onward
Britain seizes Algeria and parts of Russian Central Asia, thus decisively winning The Great Game, while Prussia annexes more of eastern Russia and mainland Franco-Spain in addition to Alsace-Lorraine, thus leaving the enemies crushed and both the British and German empires the dominant forces of Europe. Having defeated the Central Pact of the Great War, the British Empire and later the German Union became the resultant superpowers of their world and consequently embarked upon an Interbellum.