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Before the Roman times, the area of today's Tuscany was called Eturia, because of the Etruscan culture. It was also known by the Greeks as "Tyrhennia" because of the Tyrhennian Sea. The people of Etruria were named Etruscans, and their complex culture was centered on numerous city-states, such as Veii. In their golden age, they were able to dominate Latio, Mantua, and the north-eastern coast of the Italian Peninsula. Corsica was also conquered. The Etruscans were a heavily civilized people, very influenced by their neighbors on Campania and the Balkans, the Greeks. They were responsible of importing much of the Greek culture into Rome. The Etruscans were the most powerful nation on Italy until the rise of Rome.
Rome and Middle Ages
Soon after the Romans conquered Eturia, Rome built new cities, such as Lucca, Pisa, Siena, and Florence. A lot of technology and development was brought there. Rome ensued peace. They built roads, aqueducts, sewers and many buildings. The region was left to the Goths at the end of the Sixth Century, and later it was conquered by the Longobards, which designated Lucca as capital of the Duchy of Tuscia.
Originally, there was a Roman settlement on the areas of Florence, called Florentia, but it was destroyed in the civil war between Marius and Sila. Florence was rebuilt in 59 B.C.E as a settlement for veterans, named Florentia. It was made by Julius Caesar due to the rich farming village of the Arno, the river in which Florence was located. Fiorentia was designated capital of Tuscia, a great sub-region, dominating today's Tuscany, Umbria and northern Lazio. St.Minias was Florence's first martyr on 250 C.E during Decius' anti-Christian persecutions. The Basilica di San Miniato (Basilica of St.Minias) is located near the spot.
Republic of Florence
On 1115, the Republic of Florence was founded by Florentine rebels which wanted independence from the Margraviate of Tuscany, which disintegrated after this was achieved. The Golden Florin was made, the first gold-based coin made on great quantities since the Byzantine 7th century coins, enough to play a significant roll on commerce on the trade routes based on Florence. That made the Republic of Florence to become very rich.
Over the ages, even if Fiorentine trade fell, culture continued on a high peak. The Tuscan dialect of Italian became the standard Italian language. Unfortunately, Florence was hit rather hardly by the Black Death. At the end of it, a great revolt of cotton workers, called the Ciompi Revolt, happened. It established a revolutionary commune.
During the reign of the Medici, which transformed the Republic of Florence into the Duchy of Florence and then the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, the Renainssance started. Florence became the cultural centre of the world, but militarily it got weaker until the Duchy of Milan forced Florence to submit to some terms that reduced the sovereignty of it. War broke up on the early 15th Century. The Florentines were victorious because of the Venecian interference in the pro-Florentine side.
Cosimo I de'Medici became the first Medici ruler of the Republic of Tuscany in 1433, starting the illustrious royal family of de'Medici. He and his grandson, Lorenzo de'Medici, were great patrons of the arts. During their reigns the Renaissance started on a serious way. Great publishing were made, such as Niccolò Machiavelli's the Prince, and the many pieces of the finest artwork by Tuscan artists, such as Michelangelo and Da Vinci. Scientific progress was greatly improved too, which some Tuscan scientists as Galileo Galilei. The Medici, not only patrons of the arts and the sciences but also of Roman Catholicism, were also popes and cardinals.
For a while, after the reign of the Dux Piero de' Medici the Unfortunate, Girolamo Savonarola ascended to the throne. He was excommunicated by Alexander VI and he declared war upon Pisa, which misserably failed and led to widespread plague and famine. He was then tortured and executed by Fiorentine functionaries, and killed on May 1498. Soderini supplanted him, and his secretary Niccolò Machiavelli, previous author of other books under Lorenzo the Magnificent's reign, was able to conquer Pisa. Soderini was deposed on 1512, when Cardinal Giovanni de Medici entered Florence with Papal troops. Unfortunately, he had to go back to Rome as the Pope had just died, and he had to attend to the conclave. However, Giovanni was able to become the pope, and became Pope Leo X. This made the Papal States and Florence to be in a personal union, and he placed his brother Giuliano de'Medici, as the ruler of Tuscany. On 1527, as the city of Rome itself was on siege, the Medici were deposed. Puritanism swept through the Republic, and someone appointed Jesus of Nazareth (Christ) as the King of Florence. Many new restricting fundamentalist laws were passed. But on one moment, Clement VII (Another Medici) made a treaty with Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. In return for the Pope's blessing, Charles attacked Florence and reposed the Medici yet again after a long siege.
Duchy of Florence
In 1533, Alessandro de'Medici was crowned as Dux of Florence, ending the Florentine Republic and creating the Duchy of Florence. This created great civil unrest. In 1535, a delegation was sent to Charles V to ask him to depose Alessandro De'Medici, sent by the several illustrious families such as the Pazzi, which had tried to kill Lorenzo the Magnificient on the Pazzi Conspiracy. On April 17, 1555, both the Duchy of Florence conquered Siena. Florence became a fiefdom of Spain on 1557, but it conserved its independence. Cosimo then purchased Elba from Genoa, and built Livorno. On Livorno, he implanted a law of freedom of religion. The Medici family moved to the Palazzo Pitti on 1560. Cosimo then commissioned the architect Vasari to build the Uffizi, as office for the Medici Bank and for a storage of artwork, continuing the Medici tradition of patroning the arts.
Medici Grand Duchy of Tuscany
On 1569, Cosimo de'Medici was further elevated into the Grand Dux of Tuscany. Although the artistic development on Tuscany became less and less, Tuscany started becoming more and more powerful.
Kingdom of Eturia
On the late 1700s and early 1800s the Medici and later the Habsburg dynasty on Tuscany weakened. Tuscany was then invaded by France, who created the Napoleonic Kingdom of Eturia, making a reference to the ancient Latin name.
Habsburg Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Fall of the Habsburg
At the end of the Habsburg period, the Italian peoples, who still thought of the Habsburg as invaders, and the Medici survivors, started rebelling against the Habsburg on the Duchy.
Return of the Medici
Civil unrest governed Tuscany. There were rebellions each time harder to suppress to the Habsburg. On one moment, a revolution started on Florence itself. After a short Civil War, the Medici were able to depose the Habsburg and place themselves on power again.
The Late 1800's
Medici Tuscany adopted a new flag after the Habsburg period, which was the Florence flag colored on yellow (symbolizing Florence) plus half of it red (symbolizing Pisa and Lucca) and another half black (symbolizing Siena). Tuscany started becoming more and more stable. By 1900, it was the most able
The Early 1900's
Tuscany entered into a great period of stability and tolerance. As it was the most progressive and tolerant nation on Italy, many scientists, artists and other famous people such as the famous royalist Benito Mussolini, the inventor of nuclear energy Enrico Fermi, and other.
Tuscany joined World War I in the pro-ally side, such as all of the northern nations excepting Genoa, Sicily and Sardinia. On it, the Tuscan army was mayor on defeating the Genovese, and got a large swath of territory, the Masacara lands.
The Great Depression didn't hit Tuscany as far as other Italian nations such as Venezia and Piedemont. Benito Mussolini was made Chief of the Congress, and he conceded much more power to the Dux of Tuscany.
On 1939, the Axis (Piedemont, Venezia, United Papal States, Naples, Emirate of Sicily, Germany) declared war on Poland. France and Great Britain, on their last years, declared war on them. What France and Germany didn't know is that that declaration of war would start World War II, and that their empires and themselves would end by 1946.
On 1941, Venezia attacked Lombardy. Lombardy, Tuscany, the Catholic Republic of Sicily, Apulia and the Lombard-Tuscan vassal of Genoa join the side of the Allies.
On Italy, unlike on most of the world, the Axis were victorious. Piedemont annexed Genoa, but Lombardy, Tuscany and Apulia were exceemed. The Catholic Republic of Sicily annexed Palermo and surrounding areas, which would be claimed by the Emirate of Sicily by 1960.
Several communist rebellions arose over much of Italy, being those of Lombardy and Apulia the most important, bloody and longest-lasting of them all. The Emirate of Sicily, part of NATO, claimed the western part of the Christian Republic of Sicily (then People's Christian Republic of Sicily), creating the Palermo Crisis. The United Nations had to occupy the disputed area due to the fact that it could lead to a war.
Tuscany, although part of NATO, was of center-left tendencies. However, it had remained within NATO with the hope of getting territories from the until-then richest nation of Italy, Lombardy. Nothing major happened during the Cold War in northern Italy, as Lombardy left the Warsaw Pact on 1985 in favour of the Non-Aligned Movement, as well as the United Papal States and Piedmont.
The Grand Duchy of five is divided into eight regions. These are:
- Region of Florence
- Region of Siena
- Region of Lucca
- Region of Pisa
- Region of Livorno
- Reggion of Grosseto
- Region of Prato
- Region of Masacarara
- Region of Arezzo
- Region of Pistoia
Tuscany also has the Capital District of Florence.
Nuclear energy was developed for the first time on Tuscany by a reaction made by Enrico Fermi in a squash room. It generated about 20 watts of energy, but it was a beginning. The first nuclear plant on Tuscany was founded on 1946 in Pisa, while the first good attempt to use nuclear technology to feed a city was the Nuclear Hour of Florence (1948), which was successful. The first nuclear weapon was tested on 1951, underground on the sea.
Tuscany's economy is very varied, ranged from wine-making to heavy industry, passing through tourism, food industry, mining and tourism. Tuscany is richer than most of the nations on Italy, having more than five times the GDP of the United Papal States, about three times that of the Emirate of Sicily and about two times of that of Apulia, while only Lombardy and Piedmont have a larger GDP.