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In 1849, with the spirit of Revolution in the air in Europe, the Byzantine Empire, the world's oldest and longest running state, disintegrated into devastating civil war. In 1851, the Grand Byzantine Republic emerged. Latin was made the ceremonial language of government and the Republic itself resembled the old Roman Republic.
A Senate is elected every 5 years by 250 tribal assemblies. Each assembly elects 2 Senators from the local Patrician and Equites classes (1 Patrician, 1 Equite). This makes up 500 Senators. A National Assembly of 1000 members is elected every 5 years, two and a half years after every Senatorial Election. Every year, 10 Plebeian Councillors are elected to the Senate as Tribunes of the Plebeians for a 5 year term. They make up the other 50 Senators. Every year, the ten outgoing tribunes receive a shared veto on any Senate decisions. Every five years the Senate elects two Consuls. The Second Consul holds supreme executive power and wields legislative power through the Senate and National Assembly. The First Consul is the head of the Army and the Church. He appoints the four Patriarchs of Constantinople, Antioch, Jerusalem and Alexandria for life, and he also appoints 8 Propraetors to act as a Supreme Court, a position they hold for life also. He also appoints the 24 Praetors from the ranks of the Senate to administer all of the 24 provinces. They hold their position for the term of the First Consul. The First Consul selects his Second Consul before the election in a similar fashion to the way a US running mate is selected. However, the First Consul holds no executive power other than to declare war. According to the 1851 Constitution, the First Consul must be a Senator and a former Praetor and the Second a Plebeian and a former Tribune.
Functions of Government
The Second Consul is the Head of Government. He works with his administration to run the country and to propose new bills to be made into laws. For a bill to be made law it has to be approved by the Senate if it involves defence, foreign policy or economics, and the National Assembly for anything else. The ten outgoing Tribunes of the Plebeians may use a shared veto against Senate approvals.
The tribal assemblies are made up of civilian volunteers and led by four Plebeian Councillors of the National Assembly who are elected every five years. They are responsible for the day to day administration of local areas. Several tribal assemblies are grouped into a province run by a Praetor from the Senate. He is, along with five other Praetors, supervised by a Patriarch appointed by a First Consul. The Patriarchs serve primarily as religious leaders within their Patriarchate.
With the formation of the republic, all of Constantinople's overseas territories in the Americas broke away and declared their independence. The Vice-Royalty of New Byzantium declared independence as the Confederate States of North America and the Vice-Royalty of Grand Inca declared independence as the Kingdom of Grand Inca. The republic, having just fought a two year civil war, decided to legally grant independence to these breakaway colonies.
In 1853, the Russian Empire invaded the province of Moesia Inferior in an attempt to gain control of the Strait of Dardanelles. The new state struggled to defend itself so it called on the assistance of Britain and France. The coalition defeated Russia in the ensuing Crimean War.