Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, also known as Pompey and Pompey the Great, was a political and military leader of the late Roman Republic. He came from a wealthy Italian provincial background, and established himself in the ranks of the Roman Nobility by successful leadership in several campaigns. Sulla addressed him by the cognomen "Magnus", meaning the Great, and he was awarded four triumphs.
Pompey joined his rival Marcus Linicius Crassus and his ally Gaius Julius Caesar in an unofficial military-political alliance known as the Triumvirate. The Triumvirate was validated by the marriage of Julius Caesar's daughter, Julia, to Pompey. Following the deaths of both Julia and Crassus, Pompey sided himself with the optimates and engaged in a Civil War against Caesar, which he won at the Battle of Volsnii. Subsequently, he accepted the dictatorship and campaigned against the Egyptians, securing victory over that province before dying of unknown causes in 41 BC.