Großdeutsches Reich
Great German Reich
Flag of the German Empire Coat of Arms of Prussia (Russian America)
Das Lied der Deutschen, Horst-Wessel Lied
Capital Berlin
Large cities Hamburg, Munich, Vienna, Moskau, Kiew
Official language German
Government Single-party republic
Area 16,5 mln km²
Population (2011 cen.)
238 667 000 people
14 people/km²
Currency Reichsmark (REM)

Germany (German: Deutschland; full name: Great German Reich, Großdeutsches Reich) is a state in Europe and one of the superpowers.



Instability caused by the great Depression and reparation paid to Entente led to Nazi seizure of power in 1933. 


Germany undertook large public works programs and boosted demand, via its plan of rearmament. Germany annexed Austria, Sudetenland, Bohemia and Moravia peacefully.

World War II

War with Poland

War broke out, when Germany demanded annexation of Danzig. Poland refused and was invaded on September 1, 1939. German strategy of blitzkrieg led to quick defeat of Poland. France and United Kingdom, despite being nominally allied to Poland, engaged in so called Phoney War, where none of the sides of the conflict made any actions against the other.

Western front

In April 1940, Germany peacefully occupied Denmark and invaded Norway. In June, Germany launched an attack on Benelux and France. France was defeated in one and half month. Next goal of Germany was defeating the UK. German bombers started destroying British cities and military facilities. British defence and sea superiority let first to postponing and then to cancelling of invasion of the British Isles.

War in Balkans and Africa

In 1941, following coup in German ally, Yugoslavia, Germany attacked Yugoslavia, which fell in several days. Subsequently, German troops attacked Greece, which was already at war with Italy. In February, Germany send an expeditionary force to Africa led by Erwin Rommel.

Invasion of Soviet Union

In June 1941, Germany launched and invasion of Soviet Union. Taken by surprise, Soviet Union lost most of its forces and Soviet defenders were pushed all the way to Moscow. A battle of Moscow took place in winter of 1941/1942. Despite under preparation for the winter, Soviet Army was significantly undermanned (fearing invasion by Japan, Soviet Union kept significant force on its Eastern border) Germany was victorious, albeit at the cost of hundreds of thousands casualties. Soviet Union made several attempts to retake Moscow, but was unable to. Predicting fall of USSR, Finland aided Germans in siege of Leningrad. Leningrad surrendered in January 1942.

With most of Red Army focused in the north, Germans planned to attack the south, with goal of reaching the oil fields of Caucasus. Germans succeeded in making a push and took over Stalingrad, but were forced to retreat by a Soviet counteroffensive, that threatened to surround German 6th Army. In 1943, Germany resumed its attack on the Caucasus and attempted to establish front on Volga river, between Stalingrad and Astrahan. Soviet defenders were defeated. In response to threat of Caucasus being cut off, Soviet-British forces occupied Persia. Harsh terrain and weather and Soviet defences stalled advance into Caucasus, along the mountain range. 

In 1944 Germany prepared another surprise attack codenamed Unternehmen Zitadelle. Germany attempted to surround troops in Central Russia in Voronezh region. Unprepared Soviet defenders suffered massive losses. Germany attempted to set up front along Volga river. Simultaneously German-Romanian forces broke through Soviet defences in Caucasus and German paratroopers captured Baku. Germany was now advancing along entire frontline as Soviet defenders were increasingly disheartened. Trying to prevent total collapse, Soviet Union signed armistice (known as Kazan Armistice) with Germany, that ceded all of territory west of Arkhnagelsk-Atrakhan line.

War in the Africa and Middle-East

Afrika Korps made advances towards Egypt in 1941, but was eventually stopped in El-Alamein by the British. After victorious battle of Moscow, Germany sent another Corps to Africa. It once again turned the tide of the war. German troops caught Cairo and Alexandria but were unable to cross the Suez Canal, held by significant British force. In February 1943, German paratroopers and Italian Marines captured Malta, in May that year, Cyprus fell. Convinced of German victory, General Franco signed the Tripartite pact and joined the war. Spain recovered Gibraltar and French Morocco. This virtually disabled allied forces from accessing Mediterranean. In 1944, joint German-Italian forces invaded Levant. Iraq was taken over by pro Nazi government and Britain was forced to retreat from Persia to avoid overextending itself (Soviet occupation troops were recalled after Kazan Armistice).

Germany tried to avoid engaging in prolonged conflict in Africa. Significant forces were shipped to Congo, Somaliland and Nigeria. 1943-1945 saw Germany conquering significant portion of Africa. In September 1945 South Africa was taken over by a pro Axis faction. By 1946 all of Africa, with the exception of Madagascar and Portuguese colonies was in Axis hands.

End of the war

British public, disappointed with the course of the war, elected Attlee in place of Winston Churchill. Many of them were willing to make concessions to end the war especially after V2 attacks of British cities begun. USA wasn't able to contribute to war in Europe, because of their engagement in the Atlantic against the Japanese, which was aided by its German allies. United Kingdom signed armistice with Germany on December 23 1946. The information was met with outrage by people in German-occupied Europe and their governments in exile. The peace was signed on 2 March 1947. It gave the Germans all the territory that was presently under their occupation. The negotiations were temporarily ceased after Germany demanded Greenland, Iceland, Faroe Islands, Orkney and Shetland. Subsequent destruction of major British cities by V2 rockets forced British government to give in. Peace treaty also forbade Germany from giving help to Japan. The war in Pacific ended in October 1947, after atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Kokura. 

Hitler's rule after the war

Domestic policy

After the war, Hitler continued his policy of extermination of Jews and Slavs. Between 1947-1957 two million Jews, 20 million Slavs and one million of other "undesirables" were killed. Hitler continued policy of settlement of eastern lands by the Germans. Over 5 million Germans were resettled to eastern territories, mostly, to Poland and Baltic States.

Italian coup

Throughout the war, Hitler grew increasingly concerned with his ally, Italy. Not only their contribution to the war effort was very limited, but, Italy was accumulating growing colonial empire and sphere of influence. Over the course of war, under pretext of protection, German garrisons in Italy were growing. In 1948, there were 300 thousand German soldiers in Italy. In June 1948, German troops were given secret orders to occupy crucial points of major cities. Without much bloodshed, Germany had full control of Italy. Italy was forced to give up South Tirol, parts of Venetia, Istria and release its colonies and protectorates as nominally independent nations (de facto, they were German puppets). Mussolini was removed from his position and arrested. Italy became a German puppet.

War with USSR

Years 1947-1956 were mostly peaceful in Europe (with the exception of short wars against Switzerland and Sweden). In Hitler's opinion, prolonged peace meant languishing of Germans. He was also concerned by "bolshevik menace" on the Eastern border of USSR. In 1953, Stalin died and Khrushchev secret speech marked a period of a thaw in Soviet domestic policy. Hitler recognised it as a sign of weakness. He wanted to destroy communism completely. In 1956, German troops crossed Soviet border. Soviet defenders were aware of their inferiority and didn't engage major German forces. They used terrain and weather to their advantage and employed tactics inspired by the Finnish Winter war. USSR also received major material aid from USA. Hitler didn't want to use nuclear weapons, fearing retaliation from USA. In the first year of fighting, Germans moved forward only 300-600 km through mostly empty taiga.

In April 1957 Hitler died and the top position was assumed by Himmler. Himmler continued war in much the same way, leading to another hundreds of thousands of deaths. After being removed from power and executed nine months later, new government lost interest in war and sued for peace. Germany receives all territories west of Yenisei River.

Hitler's death and struggle for power

Hitler died on 19 January 1957 due to heart failure, leaving no clear successor. Leader of SS, Heinrich Himmler became de facto leader of Germany. Himmler intended to continue Hitler's policies and devastating war with USSR. After nine months of his rule, an opposition in the party, led by Rommel, had him removed from power and executed for treason.


Domestic reforms

Rommel, after assuming power, and removing all of potential opponents started liberalising Nazi Germany. He abolished position of Führer, and dissolved SS, after having its leader, Himmler executed. New secret police was formed, called Sicherheitsdienst (Security Service). Racial policies of former were gradually repealed. Cult of Hitler stopped, publishing of Mein Kampf stopped and was eventually banned, old flag was returned and the anthem lyrics were altered. Swastikas stopped being displayed.

New policies towards minorities

Rommel changed course of German policies towards non-Germans. He stopped Germanisation of Germanic people via terror. Dutch and Scandinavian languages were legalised. Propaganda showed the Dutch and Scandinavians as German offshoots and their languages as dialects of German. Many of them held onto their old traditions but some started feeling increasing loyalty towards the German state.

After racial laws were discredited in Germany, Slavic population in the East, previously deemed un-Germanizable and only fit for extermination and slave labour, became target of Germanisation. Education and use of Slavic languages in public was forbidden. Mass terror and extermination did end. Most concentration camps were closed down, remaining were used as prisons for people accused of separatism. German colonisation of the lands in the east continued, hundreds of thousands of Germans each year moved to the east, where they were given estate of people that were previously killed or fled. He did somewhat curtail exploitation of Africans.

International relations

Rommel intended to normalize relations between Germany and Western powers. He discontinued policy of conquest pursued by Hitler. He reduced occupation garrisons and exploitation of France. He gave Athens, previously under German occupation, back to Greece. He loosened control over German puppet states.

Administrative divisions

Germany is divided into regions called Mark and counties, called Reichsgau.


  • Reichsgau Holland
  • Reichsgau Geldern-Seeland
  • Reichsgau Flandern
  • Reichsgau Brabant-Brüssel
  • Reichsgau Westflandern

Mark Nordrhein-Westfallen

  • Reichsgau Köln-Aachen
  • Reichsgau Düsseldorf
  • Reichsgau Essen
  • Reichsgau Westfallen-Süd
  • Reichsgau Westfallen-Nord

Mark Hannover-Anhalt

  • Reichsgau Friesland
  • Reichsgau Osthannover
  • Reichsgau Südhannover
  • Reichsgau Anhalt
  • Reichsgau Halle

Mark Thüringen-Hesse-Rheinland

  • Reichsgau Thüringen
  • Reichsgau Kassel
  • Reichsgau Hesse-Nassau
  • Reichsgau Moselland
  • Reichsgau Saarland

Mark Südrhein

  • Reichsgau Lothringen
  • Reichsgau Ostalpen
  • Reichsgau Oberrhein
  • Reichsgau Württemberg
  • Reichsgau Mittelalpen

Mark Alpen-Donau

  • Reichsgau Tirol
  • Reichsgau Steiermark
  • Reichsgau Kärnten
  • Reichsgau Niederdonau
  • Reichsgau Wien

Mark Bayern

  • Reichsgau Oberdonau
  • Reichsgau Oberbayern
  • Reichsgau Schwaben
  • Reichsgau Mainfranken
  • Reichsgau Bayreuth

Mark Sachsen-Schlesien

  • Reichsgau Sudetenland
  • Reichsgau Sachsen
  • Reichsgau Niederschlesien
  • Reichsgau Oberschlesien
  • Reichsgau Beskidenland

Reichsgau Weichselland

  • Reichsgau Mittelweichselland
  • Reichsgau Galizien
  • Reichsgau Ostpreußen
  • Reichsgau Westpreußen
  • Reichsgau Danzig

Mark Brandenburg

  • Reichsgau Berlin
  • Reichsgau Brandenburg
  • Reichsgau Wartheland
  • Reichsgau Hinterpommern
  • Reichsgau Vorpommern


  • Reichsgau Mecklenburg
  • Reichsgau Holstein
  • Reichsgau Hamburg
  • Reichsgau Jütland
  • Reichsgau Seeland

Mark Skandinavien

  • Reichsgau Norwegen
  • Reichsgau Götaland
  • Reichsgau Svealand
  • Reichsgau Norrland-Kola
  • Reichsgau Island-Grönland

Mark Ostland

  • Reichsgau Estland
  • Reichsgau Lettland
  • Reichsgau Litauen
  • Reichsgau Baranowitschi-Minsk
  • Reichsgau Smaleskia-Mogilew

Mark Bug-Dnepr

  • Reichsgau Bugland
  • Reichsgau Schitomir
  • Reichsgau Tschernigau
  • Reichsgau Dneprland
  • Reichsgau Kiroffo

Mark Krim

  • Reichsgau Nikolajew
  • Reichsgau Krim
  • Reichsgau Katarinoslau
  • Reichsgau Charkow
  • Reichsgau Jusowka

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