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Alternate History

German Revolution (Loyal Italy)

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Causes

There are many major causes to be considered for the German revolution. First, World War I saw internal debates within the country, in addition to liberal and unionist movements as a result of a worsened economy during the war. Furthermore, Germany's war victory came with many losses, and wounded soldiers blamed their wounds on the Kaiser, and families or dead and missing soldiers did the same. Germany's occupation of Poland led to revolts within Poland, and in putting down revolts, Germany showed its brutality to its people. In 1917, the Russian Revolution was seen as a good inspiration to anti-monarchists within Germany, and many favored a truly parliamentary government, though liberalism and socialism were becoming very common as a result of the Russian Revolution. 

Course of the Revolution

In late 1921, there were elections in the Reichstag. In the elections, large liberal untertones caused a large liberal gain. The Social Democratic Party got the most seats, and a large gain compared to the previous election. The Progressive People's Party also grew, as did the Communist Party, the Polish Progressive Party, and the Polish Nationalist Party. In early 1922, the Social Democratic Party, the Progressive People's Party, the Economic Union, and the Polish Progressive Party formed a coalition government which had a large majority. This coalition, led by Otto Wels, developed into the United Democratic Party in mid 1922, and as one party it seemed as if it would be impossible to defeat in any election. The population of Germany was generally also aligned with this party, and Wilhelm II began to see public opinion turned against him. In early 1923, the Communist Party agreed to join the United Democratic Party in supporting their request for a more powerful role for the Reichstag. As debate began in 1923, it turned to violence, and in mid 1923, the Kaiser abdicated, going to the Netherlands for exile. This prompted the United Democratic Party to have armed members march on Berlin to ensure that the Monarchy would not remain in power. In November, debate began over the contents of a new constitution, but the monarchy had been sufficiently ousted from power.

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