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There are a number of cities in Germany east of the Oder River, mostly in East Prussia, New East Prussia, West Prussia, South Prussia, and Silesia, which also have Polish names in them. This comes from the time when these cities were part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and later, during the World War II seizure of German towns east of Berlin for the formation of a fascist Polish state. Below is a list of some German towns with such Polish names.
- Allenstein (German: "Stone castle at the Alle River", Polish name: Olsztyn)
- Christburg (German: "Christ's castle"), renamed Dzierzgoń
- Kolber (Polish name: Kołobrzeg)
- Waldenbur (German: "Forest castle", Polish name: Wałbrzych)
- Thorn (Polish name: Toruń)
- Kulm (Polish name: Chełmno)
- Landsberg an der Warthe (renamed: Gorzów Wielkopolski)
- Neidenburg (Polish name: Nidzica)
- Guttstadt (German: "Good city", Polish name Dobre Miasto)
- Heilsberg im Ermland (Polish name Lidzbark Warmiński)
- Bartenstein (German: "Stone castle of the Bartians / Bartia, Polish name: Bartoszyce)
- Schippenbeil (Polish name: Sępopol)
- Riesenberg (German: "Giant's mountain", Polish name: Prabuty)
- Landsberg (renamed Górowo Iławeckie)
New East Prussia
- Marienburg (German: "Mary's castle" (both the castle and the town of Marienburg were named for their patron saint), Polish name: Malbork)