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German-Hungarian War (Nationalism 1848)

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German-Hungarian War of 1848



Previous:

1848 Revolutions (Nationalism 1848)

Concurrent:

German-Danish War of 1848 (Nationalism 1848)

German-Hungarian War
Beginning:

October 12, 1848

End:

February 3rd, 1849

Place:

Silesia, Bohemia/Moravia, Hungary, Austria, Croatia

Outcome:
  • Defeat of the Hungarian Invasion.
  • Kingdom of Austria joins the German Empire.
  • Hungary acknowledged as the successor to the Austrian Empire.
  • Grand Duchy of Bohemia formed.
Major battles:

Battles of Vienna, Prague, Zagreb, and Preßburg.

Combatants
Commanders
  • Helmuth von Moltke the Elder
  • Ludwik Adam Mierosławski
  • Alfred I, Prince of Windisch-Grätz
  • King Vittorio Emmanuele II
  • Artúr Görgey de Görgő et Toporcz
Strength

Roughly 300,000

Roughly 180,000

Casualties and Losses

Roughly 42,000

Roughly 27,500

The German-Hungarian War of 1848 was the largest armed conflict that occurred during the 1848 Revolutions. It started off as Hungary's attempt to crush the Hapsburg dynasty of Austria, and to include all minorities of the former nation into its own. After the success of the Hungarian uprising and the general revolution that followed, Artúr Görgey led a multi-ethnic invasion force into the heart of Austria, cutting off Vienna and forcing the Royal Family to flee to the Austro-German border.

Following the occupation of Vienna, Artúr Görgey did the unthinkable - with approval from Lajos Kossuth - and formally abolished the Austrian Empire. Not long afterward, did the new Democratic Hungarian Empire find itself at war with a fully unified Germany, headed by the King of Prussia, Friedrich Wilhelm IV, now Kaiser Friedrich Wilhelm I. However, minorities all across Eastern Europe rushed to aid the Hungarians in their struggle for freedom, with promises of greater rights under this new democracy.

Throughout most of December and January, the war remained deadlocked, as both sides were unable to deal a decisive blow. Just as Artúr Görgey's troops had massed within occupied Bohemia/Moravia, a declaration of war from Italy had reached Budapest. They soon found themselves with a war on two fronts, and had to adjust accordingly.

The joint German-Polish army headed by Moltke the Elder and Ludwik Mierosławski finally made its push into Prague by late January, and by the time they reached Vienna, had joined forces with the remnants of Prince Alfred's Austrian army. This massed army finally crossed the Austro-Hungarian border on February 1st, the same time Emmanuele II's Italian force had pushed its way into northern Croatia.

With the two giant armies threatening to clash on February 2nd, cooler heads managed to prevail when the Hungarian embassy in Berlin finally offered terms of a truce to Chancellor Bismarck later that night. The Alliance agreed, and on the 3rd, peace had been settled between the two giants of Central Europe.

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