Georges Ernest Jean-Marie Boulanger (April 29, 1837 – January 31, 1907) was a French military man and politician. An enormously popular public figure during the Second Republic era, he won a series of elections and served as President of France from 1889 to his death in 1907 after staged a coup to overthrow the government of Charles Floquet. Boulanger ruled France based on the "Napoleonic idea" where all executive power was entrusted to Boulanger as the head of state who solely responsible to the people while kept the Senate and the Corps législatif be elected on popular basis where the universal male suffrage was even introduced in 1891.
Boulanger promoted his own political ideology called Boulangism, an ideology of the far right supporting mass action of the people in several key issues, that included the aspects such the revenge against the German Empire, co-optation between an authoritarian Presidency with the democratically-elected National Assembly of France within the French constitutional structure, and unity between all French political factions, either that from the Left or the Right, under the leadership of Boulanger as president of France.
Even after his death, Boulanger's political legacy and ideology shaped the French constitutional structure into its current form that established a semi-presidential system where President of France, despite is later elected democratically, wields significant influence and authority on the country beside the National Assembly of France. Boulangism later also influenced the creation of ideology of Fascism in Europe where the 1922 March on Rome in Italy by Benito Mussolini and his Fascist supporters as well as France's very own 6 February 1934 coup by François de La Rocque and the Croix de Feu paramilitaries were believed to be inspired by Boulangist coup in 1889.