|George H. W. Bush|
|41st President of the United States|
| In office:|
May 8, 1984 – May 1, 1995
|Vice President:||Robert D. Nesen|
|Preceded by:||Ronald Wilson Reagan|
|43rd Vice President of the United States|
| In office:|
January 20, 1981 – May 8, 1984
|Preceded by:||Walter Mondale|
|Succeded by:||Robert D. Nesen|
|Born:|| June 12, 1924|
Milton, MA, United States
|Birth name:||George Herbert Walker Bush|
|Spouse:||Barbara Bush (née Pierce) (m. 1945)|
|Children:|| George Walker Bush|
Pauline Robinson Bush
John Ellis "Jeb" Bush
Neil Mallon Bush
Marvin Pierce Bush
Dorothy Bush Koch
|Alma mater:||Yale University|
|Allegiance:||United States of America|
|Service/branch:||United States Navy|
|Years of service:||1942-1945|
|Rank:||Lieutenant, Junior Grade|
|Unit:||Fast Carrier Task Force|
|Battles/wars:||World War II|
|Awards:|| Distinguished Flying Cross|
Air Medal (3)
Presidential Unit Citation
George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st and final President of the United States (1984-1995). He was also served as Vice President during the Reagan Administration (1981–1984), a Congressman, U.S. Ambassador to China, and Director of Central Intelligence.
Bush was born in Massachusetts to Senator and New York banker Prescott Bush and Dorothy Walker Bush. Following the attacks by Japanese forces on Pearl Harbor in 1941, Bush postponed going to college and became the youngest naval aviator in the US Navy at the time; at just eighteen years of age. He served until the end of the war, then attended Yale University. Graduating in 1948, he moved his family to West Texas and entered the oil business; becoming a millionaire by the time he was forty.
He became involved in politics soon after founding his own oil company, serving as a member of the House of Representatives, among other positions. Bush launched a campaign for the Presidency of the United States in 1980, but was unsuccessful. However, he was chosen by the successful nominee Ronald Reagan to be his running mate, and the two were subsequently elected.
With some warning of the imminent Soviet nuclear attack, the Secret service was able to relocate Bush and his wife Barbara to the Greenbrier Hotel facility. The facility, however, only had limited resources and after conferring with the President at Mount Weather, they both agreed to evacuate the country. Bush left the country on May 5th 1984, where he met with President Reagan in Mexico City, Mexico to discuss with the Mexican government about accepting American refugees. Bush was overjoyed to discover his son George W. Bush and his family had survived Doomsday and had managed to make it to Mexico City. Bush had at the last minute contacted his children before leaving for Mount Weather to warn them of the forthcoming attack. So far, however, only his eldest son had been confirmed to still be alive.
Bush, along with his son, later arrived in Hawaii where he was reported as criticising the Communistic turn the fiftieth state had taken, but was happy the islanders were managing to survive. En route to New Zealand, Bush's aircraft made contact with Samoa. After a short stay in Auckland, New Zealand, Bush finally arrived in Brisbane, Australia. After being greeted by Prime Minister Bob Hawke, he was informed that all contact had been lost with President Reagan. Bush was shaken by the news and requested that they wait a few days, but on May 8, 1984, Bush was sworn in as President of the United States of America by Sir Harry Gibbs, Chief Justice of High Court of Australia.
American Provisional Administration
The new President Bush moved quickly to re-establish the American administration. On the same day of his inauguration, Bush announced the creation of the American Provisional Administration (APA), located out of the American embassy in Canberra. The goals of the organization were twofold: first, to gather intelligence on the situation, both in the USA and across the world; and secondly, to provide cohesion for the community of American survivors. One of his first acts as president was to order American troops and supplies to Hawaii to prevent the deteriorating condition there. The lack of fuel and food available made this nearly impossible and the mission was aborted. This early failure was a blow to the Bush administration and put a large amount of stress on Bush personally.
The experience, however, motivated the president to work to re-establish communication and supply lines with the far flung American outposts in the Pacific Ocean. Negotiations with the Australian government were successful in gaining access to Australian funds and supplies to be used by the APA. Meanwhile, Bush was able to affirm the loyalty of Samoa to the APA after travelling there in July.
In June 1985, President Bush, along with Prime Minister Hawke of Australia and Prime Minister David Lange of New Zealand, issued the Gathering Order. The Gathering Order was issued to all remaining US- and NATO-forces to set sail for Australian, New Zealand and Hawaiian waters and submit themselves to command of ANZUS. Bush was on hand to greet surviving American naval ships and toured the Carl Vinson when it arrived in Brisbane on December 8.
The arrival of so many American warships was a boon in securing the supply lines to the scattered outposts of the old USA. Throughout the late-1980s and early-1990s, the APA was able to supply food and medicine from Australia to these last remnants of America.
Invasion of Hawaii
In 1987, Governor Goldblatt of Hawaii was assassinated, throwing the islands into a succession crisis. Bush, who felt guilty about his early failure in providing assistance to the islands, personally visited Hawaii months later in 1988 to restore order, accompanied by Australian and US troops. Contact between Hawaii and Australia in those days was still spotty and infrequent, and Bush expected to find Hawaii in a state of civil unrest that he could calm with the weight of his own authority. Instead, he and his team stepped into an all-out civil war that put the President in great personal danger.
The US troops still in Hawaii, however, remained loyal to the President. Though he did not actively take part in the military decision-making of the mission, Bush traveled among the soldiers and civilians, talking with them and keeping morale up. When guerrilla leader and royal descendant Andrew Piikoi Kawānanakoa ordered his supporters to lay down their arms and submit to US authority "for the good of our islands", Bush personally met with the young leader. Their highly publicised meeting would strengthen Andrew's claim to the Hawaiian throne.
Following the re-establishment of order in Hawaii, Bush helped organise a new government. The success of the invasion of Hawaii helped bolster sagging American morale among the survivors across the Pacific. The image of their president "liberating" Hawaii was enough to give most Americans hope that they could get through the horror of Doomsday.
Election of 1988
On January 24, 1988, Bush announced in a radio address over Australian radio that presidential elections would still be held on November 8, 1988. Bush stated that America was founded on the principal of democracy and to give it up now, even in the face of nuclear holocaust, would be a death blow to the country. The announcement came as a surprise to everyone in those territories governed by the APA. It was also criticised as being a waste of resources.
Nevertheless, the Republican Party held a small convention in Canberra where Bush was unanimously chosen to be their nominee. The remnants of the Democrats had their own convention a few days later and nominated Alaskan politician Steve Cowper, who was particularly adamant about defeating Bush over what he felt was increasingly bad governance of Alaska by the APA. Despite Cowper's beliefs, many Democrats admitted that the only reason they nominated Cowper was so that Bush would not run unopposed for president, something that only George Washington and James Monroe had ever had the honor of.
The general election campaign between the two men has been described as one of the most civil in American history. Though Cowper criticized Bush for some of the actions of the APA in Alaska and Hawaii, he lauded him for his efforts in maintaining the United States after Doomsday. Bush also praised Cowper for his actions in helping re establish the Alaskan state government in 1985.
On November 8, 1988, with over 50% of registered voters voting, Bush was re-elected President of the United States of America. In his victory speech, Bush promised to continue to work to rebuild the United States of America. His speech also contained his famous pledge: "the light of America will never be extinguished." Bush also promised to establish APA control over survivor communities in southern Oregon and northern California and help preserve American culture.
Election of 1992
More to Come
Crescent City Crisis
Desperate to meet his campaign promises in the face of growing dissent, Bush pressured APA officials to re-establish federal control amongst the survivor communities of southern Oregon and northern California. Despite refusals by the local leader, "Boss Jones," the APA established a base at Del Norte County Airport near Crescent City, California. In April, Boss Jones and followers launched a surprise attack on the base, taking hostage many APA agents and killing the small Marine guard that was sent to protect them.
News of the attack led to widespread outrage among Americans in Oceania. President Bush quickly ordered a rescue mission to be carried out by American special forces was mounted. Though the mission successfully freed the hostages, several of the hostages were killed, as well as over 200 civilians in Crescent City during a bombing run on the town's defences. "Boss Jones" survived, but the real blow was to the American Provisional Administration, because it showed a key weakness of the APA projecting power from ANZC to the former USA.
In the aftermath of the crisis, the towns of the region became openly hostile to the APA. Attempts to establish another APA base were rebuffed, sometimes violently. Public opinion of the APA dropped dramatically. President Bush would later go on to say that the Crescent City Crisis caused him to seriously consider proposals about disbanding the APA.
End of America
On May 1, 1995, Bush announced in front of the American embassy in Canberra the end of his presidency and the American Provisional Administration. In consultation with Prime Minister John Howard, Bush issued a short statement to a crowd of American expatriates and forces in Australia, stating that it is best if they "become part of the Australian life and culture". He explained how he would continue to act as an adviser to Howard, primarily on development of Australian oil production in Indonesia. Though the United States of America had officially come to an end, Bush stressed in his speech that hope for the United States. In what became known as the “Continuity Act”, Bush declared that the United States sovereignty and Constitution were only “temporarily suspended until a legitimate successor – continuing the US traditions of Freedom and Democracy - is elected by the American people."
Disbanding the APA, and thus the United States, proved to be the most controversial decision in Bush's presidency. The constitutional debates about whether Bush had the executive power among expatriate Americans proved to be the spark that created the Committee to Restore the United States of America.
Though no longer President of the United States, Bush was present on August 15, 1995 on the celebrations commemorating the creation of the Commonwealth of Australia and New Zealand. As one of the many speakers at the occasion, Bush announced that the ANZC was the successor to the United States that he and other Americans were hoping for. Not all Americans, however, were supportive of this development. The Committee to Restore the United States of America felt that Bush had betrayed the country by disbanding the APA and throwing his support behind the ANZC. Bush continued to remain as an adviser to the leaders of the Commonwealth on American affairs.
The book that may do the most to shape Bush's final legacy in the public memory was published in 2000. The Last American President, by historian William Feston, is a sympathetic biography focusing on the President's resilience in the Aftermath era, and on the intense personal struggles he felt during his key decisions, from requesting to be sworn in as President in Canberra, to disbanding the APA a decade later. The Last American President has been widely read by surviving Americans wherever it has been made available, even on the American mainland, where in many communities it is practically the only piece of post-Doomsday literature that can be found. Bush himself approves of the book and convinced Feston and his publisher to donate their profits and royalties to the United States History Museum.
Though not present for the signing of the Municipal States of the Pacific Contract on July 4th, 2006 at Crescent City, Bush commented that: “The seed of the spirit of the United States has survived on U.S. soil. Maybe one day our glorious heritage will be continued ..." This was the first time Bush had publicly spoken on American nationalism since 1995.
Bush remained prominent in international affairs throughout his life. In 2007, he was one of the many dignitaries who helped negotiate the creation of the League of Nations. He was especially helpful by acting as a arbitrator of disputes between the ANZC and the South American Confederation.
Ever since the 2009 Field Expedition brought news back of the large number of American survivor states in the interior of North America, Bush has once again spoken out in favor of American nationalism. Exactly what this means for Bush's future political career is currently unknown.
The former president continues to make many public appearances. Recently he appeared on an Australian fishing television show. He currently lives in Canberra, Australia with his wife, Barbara.