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The divergence of this timeline comes in 325BC when on a journey to circumnavigate the British Isles the Greek explorer Pytheas of Massilia is caught in a storm off the western coast of Scotland and an island called Mull, here he is shipwrecked with his crew. The crew is united and harm is done to only one of them who has a broken leg. Much of the ship's cargo is also later salvaged on a beach. From here on Pytheas keeps detailed journals of the events unfolding.
After two days wandering with his crew they encounter a Pictish farming village. This particular tribe had good experience with other tribes and traded gold ingots with the mainland. Despite the language barrier Pytheas traded jewelery and precious stones with the tribe and he remained there for two months as they repaired what was left of their ship. Later Pytheas would complete his navigation, but for now he had returned to Massilia where his exploits became famous and tales of the northern gold became famous, too. Gold hunters soon began to descend upon Mull in 323BC and the locals on the island were assimilated by the Greeks. A few years later in 319 Greek settlers attempted to explore and assimilate the mainland where they were driven back by much more hostile tribes. A Greek army was raised to subdue these tribes who were all in conflict with each other, anyway.
These small mainland tribes united under Óchách Odení to form a small force capable of taking on the Greek contingent called Celdonul, when the Greeks invaded a small portion of western Scotland Óchách wages guerrilla war for 21 years until he died. In these 21 years the tribes had been united in trade but also a mutual dislike of their Greek overlords who officially administered the area, this resulted in peace between the tribes but when Óchách died there was a contest amongst his sons as to who would be the heir as chief of the tribe. The contest resulted in his eldest, Ech, becoming heir to the tribe. Ech was sympathetic towards the occupying Greeks and made moves with the Celdonul to stop fighting the Greeks, this annoyed the other chiefs who were much older and experienced that Ech and felt that they should be in charge of the Celdonul. Ech's other three brothers were annoyed at Ech for getting the position of chief of their tribe (Dedre) each brother then took harder lines to gain the support of the other tribes in the Celdonul, in the summer of 318 Ech died under mysterious circumstances. Most agree it was from a disillusioned Dedre farmer who was simply concerned for his farm being seized by Greeks. When this happened civil war ensued between all three brothers and it waged for three years, it ended in the destruction of the tribal system in this area and for another 250 years the Greeks administered the area in peace.
In 168 after the Romans had taken control of much of Greece, the colony, now known as Mullymn declared independence under Mythr Óch, the first half Celtic governor of the area. It had prospered as a trade hub from the other Picts, Irish and Scandinavians to the Greeks, Romans and Etruscans. Therefore, they had the best boat technology in the world. Most of the industry was driven within the cities that had 50/50 Celt-Greek mix, the class divide was now almost non-existent with the wealthiest being mainly Greek but the poorest were Greek and Celtic, this is due to the gold industry running dry and being replaced with the trading industry, therefore the initial prospectors lines had moved to the cities after gold had gone. Some stayed in the countryside but 80% of the were Picts.
As the city grew and prospered alongside the prospering roman empire Mythr Óch attempted to invade central Scotland, but the land was useless and locals hostile therefore decided to invade Antrim and Donegal which he did in 158 and where many Celts and Greeks emigrated in equal numbers to take up the land there. Myth was a clever man and therefore he did not attempt to subdue the local Scotti tribe, rather he allowed them to govern themselves and provided the area with infrastructure. Due to the Scotti fighting amongst themselves they did not organise a resistance until 60. Until that point Mullymn was very successful and had expanded greatly and was trading frequently around the Baltic and throughout the British Isles, the Rhine and France. But in 60AD, the Scotti tribe united under Angus Ghadh and with the support of southern Irish tribes attempted to push the Celts back through northern Ireland. In 58AD they succeeded due to the Celts weak army and the fact it was already fighting the Britons in the south.
The newly unified Scotti began now to gain prominence as a tribe in northern Ireland and the Celts were concerned about mull being invaded. In 55BC the Celts approached Julius Caesar with the proposition that they would attack the Britons from the north if he promised to offer the Celts autonomy and protection from the Scotti. In 46BC the Romans invaded southern Britain and the Celts attacked the Britons in the north. Quickly both forces had met on a line stretching from the Wirral to just south of the Humber.
Here it was decided that a peace agreement with the Mullynms would be drawn up as they were very important for the luxury goods and timber trade.
In 107AD the governor Angus declared himself king Angus, this was met with little resistance as he was an excellent governor having quelled rebellions by Britons in Humber and having expanded territory northwards into Sutherland and the Outer Hebrides to assimilate the Caledonii. In 196AD though Angus's grandson Eoin Óhg died and left no heir to the throne. The area was thrown into a civil war between Eoin's elderly cousin and Eoin's infant nephew. After a bloody civil war, the nephew Andrew was chosen, he was nine years of age at the time and it was decided he would not be given control until he turned 14. Until then a Roman administration was brought into keep the peace.
In 412 Mullymn officially severed any ties with Rome after it left Britain and therefore left the Mullymn alone. Due to this and decreased trade the Mullynm entered a period of little prosperity with the great city of Mull being more or less abandoned and the Greco-Celtic inhabitants were in a dark age.
In 500AD exactly, a large flux of Scotti came to Scotland peacefully and with them a breed of Celtic Christianity. They co-existed and bred with the local population easily and instated a king, king Dara. This new kingdom called Dal Raita administered ex-Mullynm lands and people peacefully and after only 100 years the populations of both were indistinguishable.The city of Mullynm was in an overgrown state, as the new capitol for Dal Riata was on the island of Iona. But nonetheless, it was still lived in and administered as the largest city. Slowly it was re-inhabited by the country dwellers over the next 300 years.
In 754Ad the first recorded Viking raid occurred on the abbey area of Humber, subsequent raiding occurred and in 812 the Vikings invaded Sutherland, here the first major war for Dal Riata was fought, and there was a resounding Dal Riata success at the battle of Loch Shin. not long after in 843 Humber was subject to Anglo-Saxon raids which were also repelled easily, culminating in the Battle of York. In 890 the Vikings invaded York again and occupied it and it's area until 992 when King Calum took it back along with other Viking possessions such as the Faroe, Shetland and Orkney Islands.
On an unrelated note in 770 a Hebridean sailor by the name of Úle discovered Iceland which he named Úlaithe, the king at the time claimed it and begun an aggressive colonisation project offering free land grants to any freeman of Dal Riata (now called Scotland).
In 1066 the Normans had invaded England and this frightened the Scots as they were concerned that it would be followed by a Norman invasion of Humber. They were correct, in 1072 the city of Úpla was invaded by King William and his army, quickly it was taken, as the army was expecting an invasion from farther east and closer to the coast. Presuming William's next strike would be on York the king at the time (Alisdair?) moved all his troops there. He was correct but he did not do what would have been presumed of him. He moved all of his troops to south of York, here they suffered a disastrous defeat and York was soon taken and sacked.
For the next 40 years Scotland up to Berwick was under the control of William. In 1112 a man by the name of Bruce, born in Alnwick to an unassuming land owning couple. He became an outlaw after his wife was raped at age 22 (braveheart much :T). outlawed he was subject to a manhunt around Alnwick, in the summer of 1112 he managed to arrange a meet up with one of his brothers, Robert, a sheep farmer in the dales. His brother sympathetic of Bruce's sit he contacted another group of farmers in the small town of Achn. In Achn Bruce and his brother met with three other men to speak about what Bruce should do. One was a merchant seaman and he suggested smuggling Bruce to Norway.
When Robert returned in two days to his home he found it had been raised to the ground and after asking about his village he found out that he had been convicted of fraternising with his brother, an outlaw. Robert thus fled to the hills in search of his brother. When he reached his brother he found the other two men he had spoken with. The third was missing, he had been killed. As a foursome they remained outlaws for two years when in the winter of 1114 they ventured into the small town of Keswick in the Lake district. In Keswick they were spotted by local soldiers of the garrison. The soldier had noticed one of the two men, whose name was William, raised the alarm for William. Robert then ran at the guard and killed him quickly. This was in the middle of a busy market, and considering there were no witnesses willing to tell the soldiers a riot ensued and many of the men began to attack the guards rallied by the four outlaws Keswick's garrison had soon been destroyed and dispersed. The men of the town who had been heavily taxed and exploited for years now soon rallied under these four outlaws. A small militia was raised and most of the men followed the outlaws from the town, the women and children were told to disperse to relatives.
A few days later and King Henry had been informed of this, he was livid and ordered troops not on the crusades to pursue the militia. By 1116 the militia had garnered numbers nearing 2000 and since then they had waged a guerrilla war upon the English utilising their ability to disappear and hunters skills with short bows to the advantage. In 1117 the king of Scotland, Calum III, ordered the militia to be equipped by the Scots, but not helped. An uneasy ceasefire only existed.
In 1120 the militia now comprising of over 7000 men stormed into York where they silently infiltrated the castle and managed to take it with a minimum loss of life. Sadly they were now to be attacked by the English at York, they retreated into the lake district where the readied for battle. In hard knot they were outnumbered three to one including an assault from heavy cavalry.
On the morning of May the 1st 1120 the two armies faced each other, the English army wide and shallow at the top of the vale and the militia thin and deep at the bottom. From this position the militia was in a bad way. The English attacked with longbows, the Scots feigned retreat, and moved backwards further funneling the English between a river and the vale wall. Here the order was given for the English to engage the heavy cavalry. Here the Scots' secret weapon came in. Pikemen, the likes of which had never been seen before were set up to destroy the cavalry - which they did with great effect. But not only this, the terrain had funneled the cavalry in towards each other, which disrupted them and made them ineffective as they fell over each other.
From here on the Scots retreated up the vale wall to a location where the longbows were useless and to where the English could not mount a cavalry nor infantry charge. Now the Scots moved around the English to push them into a natural kink in the river, which they did. Using a fearsome technique known as the Scots' Charge, which involved charging down at the enemy at full tilt closing ground at a speed to make longbows ineffective and to allow the force to pierce the English ranks.
The battle was won and after a subsequent two clean up battles utilising the same types of speed. One of them, the battle of Humber, involved this heroic exploit:
And the king's son charged with full battle dress on his greatest steed, but with all his speed he did not take down the Bruce, he held onto the steed and as the man attacked with his lance, he jumped up and in one blow he took the head off Henry's son.
This was characteristic of the way this force fought, using terrain, speed and agility to their advantage to defeat a much larger force. Over the next three years the force waged a guerrilla war against the English with their force swelling in numbers and their Pikemen becoming renowned as being formidable against the English heavy cavalry. Despite their prowess the militia, called Cholach were not supported in numbers by the Scottish monarch. In 1123 the Cholach inflicted heavy injuries on a traveling English garrison at the town of Leyton. The king's son was killed in the incident and this lead to King Edward declaring war upon the Scots, who he believed were supplying the militia. Of course, he was correct but the Scots denied this.
In 1120 King Calum, frightened of an English invasion into the heart of Scotland in an attempt to annex it, had signed a treaty, the Auld Alliance. He signed it with the Duke of Burgundy. The deal was that if England invaded either country, the other would invade England. In 1123 the French invaded the south of England and after a fairly uneventful war England had been split between them both. The Scots gaining lost territory and also the land from the Wirral to the wash. Peace remained until 1356.
Up until 1356 the Scots and Burgundians existed peacefully, the Scots who had more of less reclaimed lost territory enjoyed a large period of success and prosperity, with the town of Berwick becoming a major trading port in the Hanseatic League along with the town of Mullymn enjoying new prosperity as a trading port for the entire west coast of Scotland, Ireland, Iceland and the land of Greenland (discovered 927).
In 1186 Greenlandic fishermen discovered, or at least rediscovered Vinland where there were traces of a now dead Viking settlement. Scotland claimed all newly found lands for itself and being the nation with the best ship builders it discovered and began to inhabit much of North America's east coast. Due to the way land was handed out there, land grants were made available, so many freemen emigrated there to have a new life on unclaimed soil.
Trade with Alba Nua stopped around the 1250s after the main company that conducted travel simply went bust after a series of corrupt investors and managers took the company under. The colony of Alba Nua was shaken. The town of 4000 that was Nua Glasagu was brought to its knees, turned into a small village of 200 people after famine engulfed the land. Indians now began to help the Scots living here and intermarriage was common. Indians converted to Christianity and Scots begun to use Beothuk words in Gaelic. Likewise the Beothuk language took on Gaelic words. With the Scots spread around the town of Nua Glasagu farming and fishing, and the Indians hunting and fishing in the north of Nua Alba island, the population of the island stabilised at around 1000 Indian-Scots.
In 1356 after the Bubonic Plague had hit Europe hard, the ruling classes had been destroyed and feudalism was on its knees. The ethnically English inhabitants of England, speaking a language far removed from their Burgundian overlords and Norman lords before them, revolted and in a series of violent peasant revolts in England overthrew the monarchy and instated an English emperor, whilst the Scots attempted to aid the Burgundians, they failed. In 1358, fearing that which had happened in England would happen in the English fringes of Scotland and in the depraved Scottish areas, King Rhuardhry established a parliament which he hoped would stop the rioting and himself being killed. It succeeded and whilst it still answered to the king, it enacted laws and kept peace in Scotland for another 150 years.
In this time many Jews immigrated to Scotland where because of the parliament who recognised their uses, they were not persecuted and in cities like the new port of Dundee and the new capitol of the west, Glasgow, the Jewish population flourished and these areas became banking and trading capitols for Europe. Due to a successful government and a benevolent king Scotland prospered and with its New World assets it became the trading capitol of the world. Unfortunately this was not to last, in 1529 a new Scottish king came to the throne, named Charles. Charles was deeply unpopular with the businessmen and nobility of Scotland but highly popular with the people. His anti-Semitic policies and isolation of the parliament pleased many Scots but worried the businessmen who were concerned with his ignoring of other European countries and ill concern for the Auld Alliance after he failed to send troops to France to fight. On 30th December 1539, a group of of politicians began to plot the highest of high treason. Assassination. A nobleman named Alexander sold this assassination information to the king. At this point Charles make a momentous decision. He would kill all of the parliament, except three close advisors. This was a major mistake as the nobles who were already extremely annoyed with the king, would not take being killed. Now armies were raised by most all nobles, and with collaboration from a spurned French king and a spurned Scots noble, who believed he would be king, marched through Scotland and took Edinburgh with little resistance. Charles was deported to France, and the new King Robert III was instated. Robert was very much under the control of the parliament, as they have shown how fragile a kinghood in Scotland can be. At the beginning of Charles's reign Protestantism was sweeping across the nation. Many of the nobles were Catholic, but the king converted to Protestantism in 1539, one reason for the plotting of assassination. Much of the population in the south of Scotland were Protestant, south of Perth lived around 80% of Scotland's population. But the nobility were Catholic, not only Catholic, but especially in the borders, Gaelic.
In the borders, an area that had been English until 1120, here the dominant language was English, Gaelic had infiltrated but the language was very much English, with a Gaelic hint. As such in the lowlands the language of Scots developed and was the language spoken amongst the majority of the lowlands population, Gaelic was only spoken in the court and by the kings and administrators. This angered many lowlanders. With the now Protestant/Catholic divide things got worse. Many Scots felt unrepresented by archaic Catholic leaders.
Comes to the fore, John of Leeds. John was a Scots-speaking preacher who along with John Knox was responsible for much of the Scottish reformation, he had an inspired congregation in Leeds, and almost all of this 10,000 strong town were Protestant. Resentment between them and Gaelic-speaking guards was large. On 16th July 1540 a Scots Protestant service including many of the towns business leaders was broken up by Gaelic-speaking guards. Prior to this another Protestant preacher had been killed. The members of clergy revolted and attacked the guards. Re-enforcements were sent and once again overthrown, the castle was taken later that week. Leeds had fallen to the Protestants. From here John and one of his generals Preston began to raise a Protestant army. Henry the Eighth heard of this, and hoping to reclaim the south of Scotland, or even all Britain for the Tudors, declared war on Scotland. An English-Scots force marched to Edinburgh raising a Protestant army and at Edinburgh the battle of Edinburgh was fought. Within the city streets. It raged for one month, the castle changing hands dozens of times in those days. In the end the south prevailed, Robert and the parliament went to exile in France. An English sponsored Scotland was now a reality, a Protestant government with Henry the Eighth (the first) as king. The capitol of Scotland was moved from Edinburgh to Newcastle and the Scots language began to flourish, whilst the Gaelic language was now persecuted and was in decline. The french had no control over England, the Auld Alliance was in exile. A Catholic Scotland existed only in the minds of the highlanders. The exiled King Robert brooded for 14 years. On April 2nd 1554 the french invaded England from the south. But before this we go to January 2nd 1552. King Robert lands on the Isle of Skye. Here he is met by the Clan Macleod, they used to be one of the largest most powerful Catholic families in Scotland. Controlling much of the Outer Hebrides. With help from the Macleods, Robert marches down using typical guerrilla fighting and reached Glasgow, a mainly Catholic city - which he takes after little fighting. From here Scotland is plunged into bloody civil war for two years, with Robert being pushed as far back as Garbhe and the massacre of Garbhe, and as far south as Hull. Arrive the French. England is now waging war against France, a war that continued for 40 years - in which time much land had changed hands. But finally, on the 24th July 1592 the war ended when Robert was killed and the French repelled. In this time a Protestant general, Cameron, declared himself king of Scotland. He lived for ten years, in which time Scotland developed a fierce navy and hundreds of castles were built in the highlands. Additionally, he successfully quelled a few highland rebellions. His son, Cameron II, was not as manly as his father, and after failing to fight in his first Catholic rebellion he decided to pursue more diplomatic means with the Gaelic highlanders. In 1607 an act is signed restoring some of the clan chiefs' rule in the west and north of Scotland, as well as freedom of religion.
In 1612 Nua Glasgagu was rediscovered by Rhuaridhe of Benbecula, a fisherman. Its housing, language and culture were far removed from what Rhuaridhe was used to, but he managed to converse with the Gaelic-Indians fairly well. Rhuaridhe returned to Benbecula and established the Lewis Trading Company which traded furs, timber and amber from Nova Scotia to Greenland. The Isle of Lewis and the port of Stornaway grew rich as European trading capitols. Whilst the east began to rebuild its' reputation, trading slowly further east and reaching Russia and the Caspian. Edinburgh grew as a great financial capitol and Glasgow grew as a great trading capitol, trading down the coast of Africa, Portugal, Basque and France. Scotland was in the unusual position of having an already established colony in America. The Indian Gaels were highly fortunate as they were knowledgeable in surviving the Atlantic North east of America. As such they were paid handsomely to create new colonies and forts sprung up from Labrador to Massachusetts. Scotland prospered, with Gaelic colonisation of the north of Ireland, Newfoundland, Labrador, Nova Scotia and much of western America. Scottish-Indian trail blazers opened up routes to the Great Lakes, where the fort of Nua Glencoa was established. The colonisation of North America, was Scottish. In 1678, the Ayr Trading Company, a company that had provided reasonable wealth to Ayr, with trade consisting of the Irish sea, Ireland, England, Wales, France and Greenland. Deciding to take a leaf from the book of the Spaniards and English, until this point Scotland had made most of its wealth from furs and a small European trade in household slaves. From here the Ayr Company decided to make inroads of southern North America. They sent a small contingent of traders and Gaelic Indians to the South Carolina area. They were met with hostility. Returning a year later, the Ayr Trading Company set up a small fort. Now a slave trade began to develop. The Berwick and Edinburgh companies switched most of their work towards a triangular Atlantic trade, funding forts across the Carolina seaboard. The Berwick company and the Edinburgh company now merged, producing a giant conglomerate. From there, they bought out several thousand acres of sugar plantation in the Caribbean.
Meanwhile, the Glasgow company attempted to crack the Indian Ocean, and many west coast and southern Scots companies made great wealth in spices.