This timeline is about what could happened if the French colony in Rio had survived the Portuguese attack and the further colonization of France in South America.

Rio 1555

Map of Rio by the French colonials.

French Colonization in Rio

See: France Antarctique and OTL

Early French Arrival

On November 1, 1555, French Vice-Admiral Nicolas Durand de Villegaignon , a Catholic Knight of the Order of Malta, who later would help the Huguenots to find a refuge against persecution, led a small fleet of two ships and 600 soldiers and colonists, and took possession of the small island of Serigipe in the Guanabara Bay, in front of Henriville, where they built a fort named Fort Coligny. The fort was named in honor of Gaspard de Coligny (then a Catholic statesman, that about a year later would become a Huguenot), an admiral who supported the expedition and would use the colony in order to protect his co-religionists.

To the still largely undeveloped mainland village, Villegaignon gave the name of Henriville, in honour of Henry II, the King of France, who also knew of and approved the expedition, and had provided the fleet for the trip. Villegaignon secured his position by making an alliance with the Tamoio andTupinambá Indians of the region, who were fighting the Portuguese.

1557 Calvinist Arrival and Portuguese opposition

Unchallenged by the Portuguese, who initially took little notice of his landing, Villegaignon endeavoured to expand the colony by calling for more colonists in 1556. He sent one of his ships, the Grande Roberge, to Honfleur, entrusted with letters to King Henry II, Gaspard de Coligny and according to some accounts, the Protestant leader John Calvin.

After one ship was sent to France to ask for additional support, three ships were financed and prepared by the king of France and put under the command of Sieur De Bois le Comte, a nephew of Villegagnon. They were joined by 14 Calvinists from Geneva, led by Philippe de Corguilleray, including theologians Pierre Richier and Guillaume Chartrier. The new colonists, numbering around 300, included five young women to be wed, ten boys to be trained as translators, as well as 14 Calvinists sent by Calvin, and also Jean de Léry, who would later write an account of the colony. They arrived in March 1557. The relief fleet was composed of:

  • The Petite Roberge, with 80 soldiers and sailors was led by Vice Admiral Sieur De Bois le Comte.
  • The Grande Roberge, with about 120 on board, captained by Sieur de Sainte-Marie dit l'Espine.
  • The Rosée, with about 90 people, led by Captain Rosée.

Doctrinal disputes arose between Villegagnon and the Calvinists, especially in relation to the Eucharist, and in October 1557 the Calvinists managed to have Villegagnon removed from the command of the colony. Gaspard of Coligny was then called to act as governor, and arrived shortly after Villegagnon had left, in 1558.

In 1560, Mem de Sá, the new governor-general of Portuguese Brazil, received from the Portuguese government the command to expel the French. Coligny, however, received word of such planned attack by his native contacts, and sent one ship, the Petite Roberge, to request manpower and supplies. King Francis II, seeing the colony as a possible escape to protestants, and so avoid the religious unrest starting to brew in France. An new expedition, of 30 warships and 3000 soldiers, all Huguenots, were sent to support the colony. The Mem de Sá expedition had 26 warships and 2000 soldiers. Upon the arrival, the Portuguese met light resistance and almost had expelled the French off Fort Coligny. However, the French expedition had arrived just in time, and helped the defenders. Surrounded, the Portuguese force was defeated, and Mem de Sá was held as a war prisoner until the Portuguese recognized French domain in the area. Under pressure of Pope Pius IV, France, Portugal and Spain met at Madrid to settle the borders in South America. 

Treaty of Madrid

Madrid Treaty

Colonies in South America, as for the Treaty of Madrid

The last treaty to define the borders of the continent was the Treaty of Tordesillas, which divided between Spain and Portugal. However, the French had made significant territorial gains, and where pressing for a revision. King Francis made it clear that the colony would receive most of the French Huguenots, and so mostly end the religious unrest in France in favour of the Catholics. For such, both Spain and the Pope supported French claims, and granted a somewhat big territory. Portugal had pressed for increased gains, since it lost lands granted to him, and had possibilities of occupying land that officially belonged to the Spanish. So there was an agreement to expand by some land the Portuguese Brazil. With both parts satisfied, the treaty was signed and the borders and claims recognized by the nations.

Independence of Brazil

French Brazil Pre Independence

Territories pre-independence

With the discovery of gold and silver in Paul Territory, the French King, Louis XIV tried to enforce a mercantilism economy in Brazil after centuries of liberty. He created an colonial central authority in Henriville that was supposed to force the Colonial Mercantilism. The Time was 1720, France and Spain were in an Alliance, Great Britain and Portugal had colonial interests in French Brazil, and the colonials in Brazil just wanted to get free from a King they  never knew. The War of Independence or Brazilian Revolution started with the conquer of Henriville and the theft of military equipment of the forts across Paul Territory and New Louisiana. The Governors of the colonies united in Henriville started the First Henriville Conference, were they declared the independence of the Brazilian Colonies.

Independence War

At the First Henriville Conference the future rulers of Brazil requested an Alliance with the British and the Portuguese in the war. Both of them helped in the war. France didn't had much to send to the colonies, so the first fleet they sent was the last. The Spanish, thinking only in the future new colonies, mobilizes the colonial defence troops and take New Louisiana and the Portuguese Brazil.

Fearful of losing it only colony, Portugal sent most of it army and navy to South America and, before the fleet arrived, they were conquered by the Spanish forces in homeland Spain. The Portuguese fleet reached Henriville and delivered the supplies as requested by the old Portuguese government and ride to Salvador city, where they were supposed to re-establish Portuguese Brazil.

After establishing a base in Salvador, the troops received a Spanish message: either they surrender or they would be alone since Portugal was conquered. The General decided to join the French Brazil and united North and South Brazil into one independent nation. The Second Henriville Conference proclaimed the union of Brazil and the future annexation of most of South America. One of the old governors of Portuguese Brazil, José Bonifácio, was saved by the Portuguese troops and helped establishing order in the name of the French Brazil. He later joined the Second Henriville Conference and Third Henriville Conference, also becoming the First Prime Minister of the Empire of Brazil.

The British established a naval block between South America and Spain, stopping any future help to the colonies. They also invaded Portugal to liberate them from the Spanish. By that the Brazilian troops advanced greatly through the Spanish South America and reached Caracas, Buenos Aires and Santiago quickly in a couple of years.

At the end of the war, in 1730, the involved nations diplomats went to Rome, and all of them signed the Rome Treaty.

Roman Treaty

Roman Treaty new borders of South America

Rome Treaty

The Treaty was signed by Great Britain, France, Spain and Portugal. It stated that:

  1. The Empire of Brazil is a sovereign nation, with complete authority over the old French Colony and Portuguese Colony, recognized by the signers of this treaty.
  2. The Kingdom of Portugal also is a sovereign nation recognized by the signers of this treaty.
  3. Continental Spanish Central America (less Panama) is divided between Great Britain and Portugal.
  4. France and Spain will withdraw new claims over America.
  5. This treaty also works as a peace treaty and so the war stops between any of the signers.

Empire of Brazil First Years

In order to get recognized, the politics united in the Third Henriville Conference decided to create an Empire, but they needed an Emperor. They could have a Portuguese or a British Prince to be the Emperor, but they wished to remain independent from the colonial potentates. They had a proposal from the future Italian Royal Family, at the time the Royal family of Sardinia. By unanimity, the illegitimate son of Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia, Vittorio Francesco, was approved as first Emperor of Brazil as Vittorio Francesco I. The Emperor, however was forced to sign a Constitution and his power was in the Prime Minister hands, José Bonifácio, elected by the Third Conference. But, the Emperor forced the construction of a new capital in order to accept the constitution. The Conference unanimity approved the request. The nation official language was French and it would be enforced all across the nation.

With the gold and silver money, the Empire soon grow to one of the richest of the world. The government also funds farmers in New Louisiana to plant Coffee and sell it to the government. With the money, it was also possible to industrialize the country in fast way, and it became one of the industrialized countries in the world. It success inspired all of gold/silver producer colonies to try to get liberated and made the OTL USA to start the independence war earlier, in 1750.

Manifest Destiny

The Emperor made a public speech in Henriville stating that the Brazilians were chosen by God to expand through South America and make it one single country. He also stated that the country will need more people to help colonizing the interior of the nation. The army and navy were greatly improved and were the best in America, even to the Spanish colonial army. The Emperor also said that either Spain liberate the remaining colonies or they will the taken by force.

Spanish-Brazilian War

In order to enforce the Manifest Destiny, the government gave the Spain some time to give an answer and they simply refused liberate them.

The war was officially started in July of 1760, the new born United Kingdom of New England and Virginia (OTL USA) joined the war and captured Florida, Mexico (recently independent) didn't join the war but supported the cause of the Brazilians. Spain called any allies but they didn't want to mess with Brazil and its forces. Spain, so was forced to sign the Havana Treaty.


Post Havana Treaty Borders. Grey are disputed areas

Havana Treaty

The Treaty was signed by New England and Virginia, Brazil and Spain. It stated:

  1. Spanish South America and Spanish Panama are members of the Empire of Brazil, while Florida and Cuba were a New England territory
  2. Peace is declare between the signers 
  3. Spanish East Indies should be liberated with the name of Philippines Principality

Post War

After the war, the country started a new age of grow, in both industry and farming. With the growing economy of the Empire of Brazil, the family ties in Europe were always remembered, and economic support to the Kingdom of Sardinia was at the high. The country even was renting part of the army to Sardinia, what allowed their expansion to far from Milan. 

Napoleonic Wars and Brazil

Since Napoleon's first campaign was against the Kingdom of Sardinia, the most close ally of Brazil, the Empire quickly joined the war and called also the New England, so they could quickly grab Louisiana and Brazil could send some men to Sardinia. It was a perfect plan until Mexico joined the war, pro Napoleon, so New England and Brazil fought Mexico until they got a surrender from their Emperor. The war quickly ended, and the Mexican emperor left the throne. The son of the New England King assumed the throne and married the daughter of the Emperor of Brazil, making a lasting alliance between them. Mexico conquered the British-Portuguese territories in Central America during the war.


New American border, after the Napoleonic wars

America Post-War

In the immediate after-war, Britain requested a treaty with the New England to solve any remaining questions over sovereignties in America and the New York Treaty was signed between New England, Great Britain, Canada (As a British Colony), Mexico, Brazil, Japan and the new formed Haiti Principality. (It was a Congress of Vienna to America) It stated:

  1. The Oregon Territory and more of Canada is granted to New England in exchange of stopping the expansion over North America.
  2. Most of British Africa and French Africa is shared between New England, Brazil and Italy.
  3. An Alliance is formed uniting Brazil, Mexico, New England, Great Britain and Italy into the West Alliance.
  4. New England can have the former Dutch Indonesia, while Italy have French Indochina.

Berlin Conference Borders of Africa

Right after, in Berlin was hold the Berlin Conference that divided quickly Africa. Enjoying the time, Brazil invaded and colonized China in a quick action after the Opium war started. China was interesting for Brazil for the silk farms, that allowed the government to control all of the Silk plantations and control it prices. Peace was settled, and most of the colonial empires were at their golden age, until the colonial division turned to be an issue.

Civil War in New England and Slavery in Americas

A civil war started in New England with the south in favor of slavery (the United States of America, representing Virginia and part of Louisiana) against the abolitionist government of the First Chancellor Abraham Lincoln. The Royal forces quickly put down the secessionist forces at the Battle of Gettysburg, with the letter of surrender quickly reaching the Royal White Palace at Washington. However a secessionist radical murdered the First Chancellor, but increased the popularity of the Royalist party created by Abraham Lincoln. In Brazil slavery had been abolished in the birth of the nations to make patrons like Europe. The government wanted to keep the white population to be the majority of the population to stand like Europe, so many natives of the land were sent to Mexico, while the blacks were sent to the Brazilian Africa as labor force.

First World War

Read also: First World War (French Brazil)

France, Germany(unified by Bavaria, with Italian support), Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire wanted to get the power they deserved, and all started with the dead of the the Heir of the German Empire, Rupprecht, son of Ludwig III of Germany, by a Polish ultra-nationalist in September 7, 1914. France and Austria-Hungary supported the German massive genocide and massive extermination of Poland, while Russia, pretending to make the Polish feel as part of the Empire, declared war at Germany because of their brutal act. Great Britain enter the war to support their Russian Ally, and so put America and Italy in the war.

Inter-War Period and Great Depression

The New England government and Brazil quickly prospered and started setting consumer economies, and made several loans to Europe to help reconstruct, and so Germany and Greece entered the West Alliance, while tensions rose between Capitalism and Socialism. At 1929, the Great Depression struck. Stalin enjoyed the time and attacked Romania and Bulgaria, incorporating then to the USSR. The Nazi party was prohibited by the Reichstag in Germany, and so Hitler rose to power in Austria, the country that together with Hungary needed to pay for the war debts, instead of Germany. Hitler assumed power in 1933, a few years after Mussolini was promoted to General of the Italian army. Fascist governments rose in Yugoslavia, Hungary and France, unhappy by the war results, while an ultra-nationalist party reached power in the new Ottoman Republic. The Fascist League had united in the year of 1938, after Hitler shared with Hungary Czechoslovakia. When France invaded Spain, however, the West Alliance entered the war, without knowing Hitler had a meeting with Stalin, where he proposed an Alliance, to take effect in 1942.

Second World War

Read also: Second World War (French Brazil)

The war had unexpected consequences, with Italy and Great Britain having a hard time to liberate Spain. Hitler, fearless ordered an invasion of Germany, together with the Hungarian army. They took Poland quickly, but had stopped the front there after the German mobilization. Greece was attacking Yugoslavia, while the colonial troops took care of the Ottoman Republic. At the end, Greece proved itself loyal and earned a lot of territories. France struggled for independence from Italy and Great Britain, but still were under influence. Austria were forced to pay an even higher debt, but a German sympathetic government assumed power. Hungary was free of debts and received loans from America. Yugoslavia lost territories, but kept united. Romania received independence together with Poland, Czechoslovakia and Finland.

Cold War

Read also: Cold War (French Brazil)

The Communists were defeated, but Great Britain enjoyed the time to search for world hegemony. Italy, Brazil and New England fought the UK hegemony and started the Cold War. The first thing was the space race, after all the four nations kept their alliance, but where struggling for power. The newly created United Nations couldn't do anything against the cold war. In the space race, the combined New English-Brazilian-Italian space program quickly launched men in space and put him on the moon. The UK also put some men, but after Italy already put them. In some countries war started over the supremacy. France were divided, Canada, Australia also. While the Russian Confederacy struggled to unite the former colonies, the potentates kept the fight. A war already raged in France, Australia, however neither of the potentates entered the war officially.