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Roosevelt was elected as the 29th President of the United States in the 1932 presidential election, at the depth of the Great Depression. During his administration, Roosevelt spearheaded major legislation and issued a profusion of executive orders that instituted the "New Deal" that designed to produce jobs for the unemployed, restore the economy to normal condition, and balance the interests of farmers, business and labor.
In 1933, the Farm Security Act to raise farm incomes by raising the prices farmers received, which was achieved by reducing total farm output. The Social Security Act was passed in 1935, established a permanent system of universal retirement pensions. The Act itself was the framework for the later U.S. welfare system. Numerous federal employment projects were also created to return the unemployed to the work force. The U.S. economy improved rapidly from 1933 to 1937, but then relapsed into a deep recession.
In 1937, after some of his New Deal legislation ruled as unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court, Roosevelt successfully expanded the size of the court through the Judicial Procedures Reform Act. His effort for packing the court resulted to the formation of Conservative Coalition between the Republicans and the Liberals against Johnson and the Progressives, that would gained power after World War II.
Roosevelt dominated the American political scene during the eight years of his presidency, and his policies and ideas continued to have significant impacts for decades afterward. He was a central figure in world events during the mid-20th century, leading the United States during a time of worldwide economic depression. A dominant leader of the Progressive Party, he built a powerful New Deal Coalition that united labor unions, big city machines, white ethnics, and African Americans, and dominated American politics for about 40 years.