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The Franco-Egyptian War was a military conflict from 1915-1917 between France and the Kingdom of Egypt, fought primarily over control of the Sinai Canal and the adjacent Sinai Peninsula, which was a French protectorate separate from Egypt, which claimed the territory for itself. The war began on November 2, 1915 with the Egyptian surprise attack against French Sinai's capital at Estbourg, and ended with the Turkish-brokered peace agreement at the Tirana Conference in 1917, where France agreed to relinquish its claims to the Canal and withdraw its forces from the Sinai Peninsula in return for the right to transport naval vessels down the Sinai Canal and for the right to unrestricted commercial access for all European nations down the Canal. In 1919, France also agreed to relinquish its claims to the city of Estbourg, which was still occupied by the Egyptians.
The war is regarded as part of the Colonial Wars and the defeat of the French, who had a difficult time reaching Egypt across a hostile desert as well as across a belligerent Cyrene, caused a precipitous decline in French morale. However, the provision to transport the French Navy down the Canal greatly alleviated French forces under fire in Hindustan and Southeast Asia, allowing for victories in both theaters by the early 1920's. The nationalisation of the Egyptian Canal also allowed for other European nations to enjoy unrestricted access to the canal, whereas prior they had been forced to concede profits to the French Sinai Canal Company.