Francisco Largo Caballero (15 October 1869 - 23 March 1946) was a Spanish trade unionist and Communist leader who led the Spanish Socialist Revolution in 1927 and established the Communist Party as its lone party in 1928 after a year of sharing power with the centrist Socialist and Social Democratic Parties. Largo Caballero was the General Secretary of the Communist Party, which made him the head of state, and in 1935 assumed the position of Chairman of the Communist Party, which also made him head of government, after ousting his rival José Giral and sending him into exile. He established the precedent of one person holding both offices as head of state and head of government, making Spain essentially a dictatorship. He died in 1946 and was succeeded by his protegé Juan Negrín as General Secretary and Chairman.

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