|Kingdom of France|
| Royaume de France|
Montjoie Saint Denis!
(Mountjoy Saint Denis!)
|Languages||French, Angevin, Auvergnat, Basque, Berrichon, Champenois, Dauphinois, Gallo, Gascon, Languedocien, Limousin, Norman, Piedmontese, Poitevin, Provençal, Saintongeais|
The Kingdom of France (French: Royaume de France) was a monarchy in Western Europe, originating as West Francia (Francia Occidentalis), the western half of the Carolingian Empire, with the Treaty of Verdun.
For more information see main article: History of France
1400 - 1500
At the turn of century, with Charles’s paranoid schizophrenia continuing to become more of a problem, a regency council was established by lords and nobles close to the king, gathering support from some counts, dukes, most of the Estates-General, and Pope Boniface IX. The two regents: Queen Consort Isabeau and Bishop Nicolas du Bosc, immediately started working on reconciling the rivaling Dukes of Burgundy and Orléans, and also encouraging unity among the French people against threats like England.
The regency immediately attempted to act as a mediator in both many national and international situations. In Paris, Regent Queen Consort Isabeau, King Charles VI, Duke Louis of Orléans, and Philip of Burgundy met in Louvre Castle to negotiate terms to end the two Duke's rivalry. At this meeting it was decided that the two dukes would get the special privilege to have advisors to the King. This became the Conseil des Racines in 1403, which contained two advisers from each Duke. The negotiations proved to be somewhat unsuccessful, as a misguided noble of Burgundy still assassinated Duke Louis. This led to two new actions by the regency, the creation of the "Cour de Seine" and the law, "Lex Tuitor". The Cour de Seine is a forum that meets every year in Paris which contains representatives from each vassal (which replaced the Conseil des Racines). While, "Lex Tuitor" established a bodyguard unit for each vassal, and established the Order of the Lily as the King's personal bodyguard. The regents also negotiated another peace and truce between the two parties to prevent escalation to a civil war.
In foreign affairs, the regents were able to persuade the English to back down from their siege of the Scottish capital with an ultimatum to invade the Angleterre, and renew the French Succession Wars. While the French maintained their relations with the Scottish, a new and strong relationship formed between the Castile and France. The regency also minimally participated in the Crusade against Trier, and signed the Treaty of Trier, which most of the forces consisting of Burgundian units. The Kingdom negotiated deals with the smaller nations of Brittany and Navarre to establish them as loose vassals to the French crown in 1406 and 1408.
In 1412, with the truce with England coming to the end, and seeing the weakness of their Kingdom, Nicolas du Bosc issued a declaration of war to the English crown. This followed with a quick and organized heavy decisive victories and seizures of their fortresses. Raids were also done on the English trade network, and the islands of Jersey and Guernsey were briefly captured by French forces. Small skirmishes happened on the coast, but England couldn't achieve a decisive naval landing. Around 1415, seeing how France was occupied, the Kingdom of Aragon declared war on the French vassal kingdom of Navarre. The Aragonese troops quickly pushed through the Navarran countryside, and arrived at the fortress of Pamplona with thirty thousand men. After hearing of the news, the regents dispatched forty thousand men under L'Isle Adam to defend the castle. The troops arrived just in time with Aragonese cannons almost destroying the walls around the garrison. The siege looked indecisive, with food supplies being brought to both sides of the battle. The next year with the death of Aragonese King, and one decisive sally, the Aragonese troops withdrew from French lands. The army under Aragon was battered, but not completely destroyed, and the French chose not to follow it, as they thought there would be another way of attackers coming from England. The new King of Aragon, established a ceasefire and in 1417, and peace was negotiated between the two kingdoms, restoring relations. Seeing that the siege of his ally was unsuccessful, Henry V finally bowed into French demands and signed the Treaty of Cherbourg in 1417. After winning these two conflicts the regency cemented their legitimacy to rule the nation.
During the same decade, Charles VI had his third major outbreak where he exiled his own family from Paris and ran through the streets naked. This led to the use of the "Lex Insanus" law and the removal of Charles VI from the royal palace and to Hôtel Barbette with his mistress.
Territories and Provinces
Before the 13th century, only a small part of what is now France was under control of the Frankish king; in the north there were Viking incursions leading to the formation of the Duchy of Normandy; in the west, the counts of Anjou established themselves as powerful rivals of the king, by the late 11th century ruling over the "Angevin Empire", which included the kingdom of England. It was only with Philip II of France that the bulk of the territory of Western Francia came under the rule of the Frankish kings, and Philip was consequently the first king to call himself "King of France" (1190). The division of France between the Angevin (Plantagenet) kings of England and the Capetian kings of France would lead to the French Succession Wars and Capetian France would regain control over these territories by 1412 (excluding Jersey and Guernsey).
The Kingdom of France is a very decentralized nation, with many duchies, counties, and other vassals inside of it. The crown lands, crown estate, royal domain or (in French) domaine royal (from demesne) of France refers to the lands, fiefs and rights directly possessed by the Kings of France. The rest of the French domain is divided amongst the vassals under the crown.
|Maps of France||#||Most Notable Titles||Ruler|
|1||King of France||Louis XII (Valois-Orléans)|
|2||Duke of Alençon||René I (Valois-Alençon)|
|3||Count of Albret||Alain I (Albret)|
|4||Duke of Armagnac||Charles I (Armagnac)|
|5||Duke of Foix||Francis I (Foix-Grailly)|
|6||Count of Limoges||Jean III (Albret)|
|7||Count of La Marche||Peter II (Bourbon)|
|8||Duke of Bourbon||Jean II (Bourbon)|
Estates-General of France
In France under the Old Regime, the Estates-General or States-General (États Généraux) was a legislative and consultative assembly of the different classes (or estates) of French subjects. It had a separate assembly for each of the three estates, which were called and dismissed by the king. It had no true power in its own right, instead it functioned as an advisory body to the king, primarily by presenting petitions from the various estates and consulting on fiscal policy. In France, the first estate comprised the clergymen, the second estate the nobility, and the third estate the commoners (bourgeoisie, artisans and peasants). Historically, during the regency of Charles VI, the Estates-General was given more de facto power.
Cour de Seine
The Cour de Seine is a forum that meets every year in Paris which contains representatives from each vassal. Two representatives are sent for dukes and one representative is sent from a count. This court is set up to negotiate terms between the feudalist vassals of France, helping end internal rivalries and disputes.
The Marmousets (referred to as les petites gens) is a nickname are a group of counselors to the King of France. Although they were neither princes nor civil servants, they were simply very close to the king. Thanks to this position, they were able to access the highest functions of the state. These men were endowed with another quality, the solidarity between them. Originally chosen by Charles VI in 1388, they vowed to remain united and friends. The group was disbanded in 1392, due to the King's insanity, and many of them were persecuted by the regency under the ambitious Dukes of France. One of the Marmousets, Nicolas du Bosc, became regent of France along with the queen consort in 1400. This marked the end of their eight-year persecution, and the group was reintroduced in 1418 by Louis XI.
The Livre has been the currency of France from 781 to Present. The livre was established by Charlemagne as a unit of account equal to one pound of silver. It was subdivided into 20 sous (also sols), each of 12 deniers. The word livre came from the Latin word libra, a Roman unit of weight.
The currency minted at the city of Tours in Touraine was considered very stable, and Philip II decided to adopt the livre tournois as the standard currency of his lands, gradually replacing even the livre of Paris, and ultimately the currencies of all French-speaking areas he controlled. This was a slow process lasting many decades and not completed within Philip II's lifetime. From 1360, coins worth 1 livre tournois are minted known as francs.
The taille was a direct land tax on the French peasantry and non-nobles in Ancien Régime France. The tax was imposed on each household and was based on how much land it held. Originally only an "exceptional" tax (i.e. imposed and collected in times of need, as the king was expected to survive on the revenues of the "domaine royal", or lands that belonged to him directly), the taille became permanent in 1421, by Louis XI under the advice of the Marmousets. It was mostly used for military ventures including the development of the French navy.