France is a republic that includes, more or less, OTL France.
After having lost the Seven Years War, France was no longer a colonial power. France managed to preserve Haiti and a few other islands in the Caribbean, as well as St Pier and Miquelon, however France lost the capacity to fully administer the colonies, depending on agreements with Britain and Spain to ensure the integrity of the shipments. Most of North America and the whole India was lost.
France still has some power in Europe which attempted to use as arbitrator in Germany, Italy or Sweden. However the rump colonial Empire lead France to get involved in another war, this time supporting the American rebels against Britain.
France had very few gains, and now the government was in debt.
In June 1787, a full scale insurrection overthrew the Monarchy. King Louis XVI was imprisoned as well as most of the French nobility. Louis abdicated in prison on March 1788. Released, he moved to Spain with no wealth, where he was given asylum by Charles III. Louis Bourbon, as well as many other noblemen, hoped that eventually the revolutionary government would fall and he could recover his wealth and his titles.
In 1795 a new constitution was issued, putting end to several transitional forms of government. France was a unitary republic under a presidential model. The focus was to rebuild France. Schools and universities were built. In 1802, several clergy privileges were restored. France would be a lay republic consecrated to the Catholic faith.
In 1808, Louis relinquish his pretensions to the throne of France, and any pretension from his heirs. This lead to a more cordial status with Britain. By 1810, all French colonies in the Caribbean administered by the British are returned to France.
A revolution in Austrian Italy, lead France to get involved in a war against Austria and Spain in 1812. Now Britain, as well as the United States of Netherlands are allied to France. The war is long, and involves many other countries and territories both Europe, the Americas, Africa and Asia. Finally, in the boreal summer of 1816, in a chilly Frankfurt, the peace is signed. France returned as a power in Europe, and her main goal: to built a Republic from the territories in northern Italy, was gained. France preserved her overseas territories and during the alliance with Britain was able to rebuild a blue waters fleet.
France begun a more aggressive exploration of Africa. According to the Frankfurt agreement, Africa was fair game for the European powers, and France was again an European power. Britain, the Netherlands and France were the main runners, with Spain, Prussia, and Sweden having some interests too. France was also interested in South East Asia, Australia and the Pacific Islands.
This new colonial adventures lead, by 1843 to a new war against Britain. The war was mostly fought in the colonies, and, overall, the French did better than the British. France secured her African colonies and French Indonesia, and gained control of Western Australia.
In 1867, a corruption crisis lead the president to step aside. The crisis, that mostly affected the executive, soon lead to a new constitution giving more power to the parliament. After a series of further reforms, by 1900 France was a completely parliamentary republic with the President having very little power.
The 20th century was also the century of decolonization. The parliament had issued that the French colonies would either be completely integrated to the French Republic or be declared independent under French tutelage. This plan should be ended by 1920.
The American French Territories, Algeria, Tahiti, and Senegal became Regions of France. All other territories became independent republics under the French Community, several of them recognizing the French President as Head of State.
France has territories in Europe (Metropolitan France), the Americas (American French Territories), Africa (Algeria and Senegal) and Oceania (Tahiti).
France is divided in Regions, and each region is divided in one or several departments. There are 29 regions and 112 departments.