- The world under heaven, after a long period of division, will be united; after a long period of union, will be divided. (話說天下大勢，分久必合，合久必分。) - Luo Guanzhong. Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Chapter 1.
The Revolution of 1912 fragmented Imperial China in several political entities. Only the First and Second Republics and Manchuria had a commitment to reunite China. The rest being warlord states favoring the independence of their territories has personal fiefs. The Japanese Empire, before and during the Second Sino-Japanese War, would also create a series of puppet states. China proper would be united after the end of the People's Liberation War.
Political entities of Inner China or China proper
|Political entity||Capital||Duration||Area (thousands of km²)||Population (in millions)||Notes|
|Taiwan (Japanese Territory)||Taihoku (Taipei)||1895-1945||35,980||5.87 (in 1940)|
|Republic of China (First Republic)||Beijing||1912-1935||9,604,086 (claimed territories)||Annexed by Second Republic|
|Republic of China (Second Republic)||Nanjing (1916-1935), Beijing (since 1935)||1916||9,604,086 (claimed territories)||Breakaway from First Republic|
|United Provinces of China or United China||Chongqing||1920-1929||743,300||Breakaway from First Republic / Annexed by Second Republic|
|South Chinese Republic (or Pearl River Republic)||Guangzhou||1920-1928||450,000||Breakaway from First Republic / Annexed by Second Republic|
|State of Yunnan||Kunming||1920-1929||394.000||Breakaway from First Republic / Annexed by Second Republic|
|Chinese State Union||Qingdao (1938) - Jinan (1940) - Qingdao (1944-1946)||1938-1946||Created by Japanese Empire|
|Democratic State of Taiwan||Taipei||1945-19??||35,980|
|People's Revolutionary Republic of South China||Guangzhou||1947-|
Political entities of Border China
|Political entity||Capital||Date of existence||Area (thousands of km²)||Population (in million)||Notes|
|Mongolian People's Republic (since 1921)||Ulan Bator (or Ulaanbaatar)||1911||1,564,116||Bogda Khaanate of Mongolia, between 1911-1921. Independence recognized by China in 1921.|
|Mengjiang||Kalgan (present day Zhangjiakou)||1932-1944||608,894||3,9||Created by Japanese Empire|
|Manchukuo or Manchu State||Xinjing (former Changchun)||1934-1944||800.000||38||Created by Japanese Empire|
|Xinjiang People's State||Ürümqi (former Dihua)||1943-19??||1,660,000|
|People's Republic of Manchuria||Harbin||1944-19??||800.000|
Foreign Concessions and Port Treaties in China
For Foreign Concessions and Port Treaties in China, see:
- French Concessions in China (Concessions françaises en Chine 1849-1946).
- Territory of Kwang-Chou-Wan (Territoire de Kouang-Tchéou-Wan). Established in 1946.
- Kwantung Leased Territory
- Shanghai International Settlement
- British/ICF Hong Kong
- Portuguese Overseas ¨Province of Macau
- Representative Committee of Foreign Concessions in China. Created in 1917. Dissolved in 1946 after the Franco-Chinese Agreement.