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The Foreign Relations of France have a long and complex history spanning more than a millennium. One traditional characteristic of the French diplomacy of alliances has been the "Alliance de revers" (i.e. "Rear alliance"), aiming at allying with countries situated on the opposite side or "in the back" of an adversary, in order to open a second front encircling the adversary and thus re-establish a balance of power.
The Vieille Alliance (1295-Present)
The Vieille Alliance ("Auld Alliance" for Scotland) was the alliance between the kingdoms of France and Scotland. The alliance played a significant role in the relations between Scotland, France, and England from its beginning in 1295 to the present. The alliance has always been continuously renewed by all French and Scottish monarchs since its creation.
The alliance dates from the treaty signed by John Balliol and Philip IV of France in 1295 against Edward I of England. The terms of the treaty stipulated that if either country was attacked by England, the other country would invade English territory, as happened at the Battle of Flodden, 1513. The alliance played an important role in conflicts between both countries and England, such as the Wars of Scottish Independence and the French Succession Wars.
The Alliance de Marie (1402-Present)
With the royal betrothal of the Dauphin and Heir of France Louis XI of Valois to Maria Trastámara of Castile, the two nations became defensive allies. Many say the origins of this alliance were in the Portuguese interregnum of 1383-1385, a proxy of the French Succession Wars in which France support Spain.
List of Foreign Relations
- Kingdom of Scotland (per Vieille Alliance)
- Kingdom of Castile (per Alliance de Marie)
- The Papal States (per Siege of Avignon)
- Kingdom of Aragon (per Royal Marriage)
- Most of Christian States of Europe
- Non-Christian States
- Kalmar Union (per Scottish Border Conflict)
- Kingdom of England (per Edwardian War, Caroline War, Scottish Border Conflict)
- Kingdom of Portugal (per Portuguese Interregnum War)
- Duchy of Orléans
- Duchy of Anjou
- Duchy of Berry
- Duchy of Bourbon
- Duchy of Burgundy
- County of Alençon
- County of Armagnac
- County of Auvergne
- County of Forez
- County of La Marche
- County of Nevers
- County of Vendôme
- Marquisate of Saluzzo
- More Feudal Counts
List of Treaties
- First Anglo-Scottish Treaty (1403)
- Treaty of Trier (1404)
- Treaty of Nantes (1406)
- Treaty of Pamplona (1408)
- Treaty of Cherbourg (1417)
- Treaty of Tunis (1426)