Flags are an integral factor in the understanding of a nation's culture as they can often reveal facts about its ideals or population. Colors for instance have, often several, distinct meanings. Red might mean solidarity and connections through blood to some countries whilst to others it might represent power and the blood shed in battle. Aside from their meaning, flags are also very interesting as a piece of art in themselves. The interplay of colors and symbols across their surfaces is considered aesthetically pleasing to some people, and often heart-warming to the residents of that nation. All in all, flags are an aspect of any timeline that should never be ignored.
Flag of the Imperium Romanum
Rome is a patriotic nation, and so its flag is significantly covered with national symbolism. First off, the eagle at the top is the well known Roman Aquila that adorns most public buildings and leads military formations. However, this Aquila is distinctive for its three heads; reminiscent of the two-headed eagle of the Caesar. In this case the heads represent the three capitals of the Empire, from left to right : Carthage, Rome then Constantinople. The symbol directly to the right of the eagle is the Labarum, the Chi-Rho of the name Christ (Χριστός).
Just like the top banner, the centerpiece of the Vexillum Romanum has dual secular and religious symbols. In the very middle is the cross of St. George, the patron saint of the Legion. Slightly ahead of the cross is the Tetragrammaton of the Empire, Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR), which represents the Senate and the Roman people. Around those two is a wreath, the official crown of the Emperors. Finally, standing side by side with these other symbols are the crosses that both represent Christianity and remind the Romans of the time when they would cruelly crucify criminals. However, a more controversial theory exists in regards to the crosses. Many historians believe that the two crosses with the symbols of the Empire in the middle diagrammatically represent the scene of Christ's crucifixion. In this theory, the position of SPQR, etc. as the center cross means that the flag equates the Roman Empire itself to Christ the Messiah. The majority of proponents for this theory consequently feel that the flag makes the Imperium out to be a kind of savior or God-like entity. Given that the flag was designed in the 1060's when Church and State became one, there is quite a bit of weight behind this hypothesis.
Flag of the Tlahtocaque Maya
The symbolism of the Conglomerate flag is a little more subtle, and certainly more open to interpretation. However, the creator of the flag, Qon Lopan gave the following reasons in 1255 for his design of the flag.
The gold/yellow stripes are representative of civilization and the cities, which are frequently draped in gold, whilst the blue represents nature and the resources, especially water, that hold the civilized world together. This is all very interesting when put into context with the meaning of the circles. Each one represents one strata of the Mayan population; these are circles because everyone is considered equal within their respective strata. The red circle on the right is the Mayan people and is colored as such to show their right to rule through their blood as well as their service to the God Ahau in their offerings of human blood. The green circle on the left represents the Mexican people who joined the Mayans in the cities in the early history of the Conglomerate. Though they are equals of the Mayans, which is shown by their equally large circle, they do not have the blood right to rule the country. Those two are considered to be the "civilized" races of the Conglomerate. This explains why they were placed within the gold stripes.
The central brown circle represents the Columbian tribal people who not only make up a smaller portion of the population but have also been given significantly less legal rights. Nevertheless, they are part of the country's backbone due to their importance in mining and agricultural projects. Some foreigners have tried to make comparisons with the solar system, given the Mayan's history of astronomy, but most Mayans just shake their heads at such notions.
Flag of Dai Nippon Bakufu
To many, Japan is known as the Empire of the Rising Sun; a title that is very well represented in the country's flag. The sun in this case is the Mon of the Tokugawa Shoguns who brought the Empire out of its unstable Dark Ages. It is from the Mon that the sun ray radiate out of. The black represents the indomitable (never-surrendering) will of the nation, whilst the red represents the purity of blood of the Japanese people. At each corner is the Imperial Seal of Japan, an ancient symbol of the Imperial Japanese dynasties. The use of the Emperor's crest is viewed as a supremely generous gift from the Emperor, because it is otherwise forbidden for anyone but him to feature the seal.
Flag of Dai Ön Ulus
Flag of the Republiken Danmǫrk
Flag of al-Khilāfah al-‘Bāytīyyah