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First Turkish War (Think Before You Act)

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Causes

During the first four months of 1820, peace was about to become extinct in the Ottoman Empire. The empire, once the proud nation who excelled beyond Europe, it was now on the verge of crumbling and falling behind. Corruption plagued the Turkish court, The economy and currency were crashing from inflation. Europeans were constantly planning to take advantage of its weakened state. But most importantly, nationalism was common amongst the minorities inspired by the French Revolution.

French and Russian Imperialism

Napoleon was looking forward to conquer Egypt, the place he failed to dominate prior to his rise to power. Yet despite
Sultan Mahmud II

Sultan Mahmud II of the Ottoman Empire

the earlier failure, he stubbornly wanted to return to gain the revenge he desired. French control of the Maghreb alarmed the Ottomans, who in 1818, began to established a militarized zone at the Tunisian-Ottoman border. Ottoman pirates were another problem to the French, who were formerly from the Barbary States before being annexed to France. Hired as mercenaries by the Ottomans, they raided French towns along the French North African coast and were the biggest nuisance to French naval dominance in the Mediterranean. Napoleon sent a letter to Sultan Mahmud II. Here is a part of the letter:

Who in the name of God has give you the right to challenge the power of France in the Mediterranean? Do you even know we are the masters of Europe? If you do know this, than you should reconsider what you are doing and stop attacking the power of France in the Mediterranean.

However, Mahmud ignored the message and continued to support pirates and their raids across the Mediterranean.

Meanwhile, Russia, just like France, was also looking forward to expanding its territory into the Caucasus to end the Ottoman menace in the region. Russian troops constantly harassed Turkish outposts in the region, forcing Mahmud to send troops to the region to counter this. What also decreased the region's stability was the uprisings by Christian groups (especially Armenians) inspired by the French Revolution.

Peloponnese Uprising

In Greece, Greek nationalists, inspired by the French Revolution, began to plot the war for independence. For centuries, since the fall of the Byzantine Empire. Greece has been embroiled by Muslim rule. Now, the people have had enough of their Muslim rulers. Rigas Feraios was another inspiration, having led an uprising in Serbia that although failed to achieve independence, the region was granted autonomy by the Turks.

200px-Alexander2

Alexander Ypsilantis

Alexander Ypsilantis was the leader of the Greek nationalist group Filiki Eteria, who planned to stir an uprising in Peloponnese. This was successful on April 17th, when thousands of Greeks revolted. They attacked 50,000 Muslims living in the region, with 20,000 dead. When the news hit Constantinople, Mahmud ordered the arrest of the Greek Patriarch of Constantinople, Gregorios V, arrested, suspecting him of having a part in the uprising.

The movement spread across Greece and the Balkans, causing uprisings all over the region. Serbs, Croats, Bosniaks, Romanians, and Bulgarians constantly attacked Muslims, Turks, and governmental buildings in what is known as the Balkan Revolution. This forced Mahmud to declare martial law in the region, yet military support was coming from Europeans.

However, support for the movement was commonplace in Europe, especially France and Russia. The moment when the Greek War of Independence began, France and Russia declared war as an excuse to help the protestors and seize territory from the Ottomans.

Course of the War

Balkan Theatere

Russian Campaign

On April 22nd, 1820, Russian General Pyotr Bagration led 100,000 troops into Tiraspol, where they clashed with a 110,00 Ottoman force there. The battle went on for two days before the Ottomans were forced to retreat due to having heavier casualties than the newly improved Russian army. The Ottomans were forced to fortify Wallachia, Transylvania, and Western Moldavia from the Russian invasion, yet this was difficult due to the pro-Russian and pro-independence riots.

Siege of Varna 1828

Siege of Odessa

To counter the Russian invasion of Romania, the Turks struck at Odessa on May 11th, eventually capturing the city. The Russians responded by sending a force to take back the city. During the Siege of Odessa, at least 60,000 died, mostly Turks. Eventually, the Russians captured the city on May 26th.

On May 21st, the Russians manage to strike the Ottomans at Botosani. Inspired by the Russians, the local populace began to rebel for independence, allowing the Russians to easily take the city and slaughter most of the Turkish army. On April 8th, Piatra Neamt was invaded by Russian forces, who manage to easily oust the Turks from the town. By the request of Pyotr, the Russian government began to fund Roman separatists in the region, causing constant pain to the Turkish military.

However, Selim III ordered the raids of Russian trade routes and communication lines and the burning of the countryside (to prevent the Russians from obtaining any resources), causing the Russians to suffer two defeats at Tulcea on May 29th and Galati on April 6th, forcing the Russians to recover until April 13th, when they struck the Turks back at Tulcea and eventually defeated them. Later, they once again captured Galati on April 20th.

Grivita 1877

Siege of Bucharest

Meanwhile, the Turks began fortifying Bucharest and fought off the rebellions in the city. On July 4th, the Russians arrived, fighting the Turks in the Siege of Bucharest. One month later, the Russians broke into the city, officially forcing the Turks to retreat from Romania, allowing the Russians to advanced through Bulgaria.

Pyotr marched to Pleven with 150,000 soldiers (with 35,000 Romanian recruits) on July 9th. The goal was to march to Sofia and capture the city. However, the Turks fought valiantly to ensure the Russians did not capture it. However, eventually, the Russians took control on July 12th.

Scene russo turkish war 1877 hi

Siege of Sofia

Finally, the Russians marched to Sofia on August 7th. The city was greatly fortified by the Turks, who manage to squash a rebellion there and forced the inhabitants to flee. For three months, the Turks and Russians fought to take control of the city. Eventually, the Turks fell on November 10th, giving the Russians a foothold of northwestern Bulgaria.

However, the Turks began to siege the city once again to retake it. On November 21st, the outnumbered Russians had to hold off against the Turks. the battle went on for four months, with reinforcements coming from both sides. Eventually, the Russians were able to send in more men and forced the Turks out of the city on February 26th, 1821.

Pyotr began to plan to find a route to meet up with the French at Belgrade. On March 4th. However, the journey was difficult due to the mountainous terrain and the lack of adequate roads. On March 7th, the Russians headed for Svoge, where the managed to take out the Turks. On May 10th, the Russians captured Kostenets from the Turks. The capture of the town allowed the Russians to head to Serbia.

The Russians manage to reach Aleksinac on August 21st. However, due to problems with the terrain, the Russians
Le-crimean-war

battle of Aleksinac

were forced to pull back. They found an alternate route by crossing to Krusevac on September 11th. There, they manage to defeat the Turks thanks to the support of Serbian rebels.
Battle of Lutzen 1813 by Fleischmann

Siege of Belgrade

Finally, on January 29th, the Russians manage to catch up with Michel Ney in Brcko, where with the French had to deal with a pro-Turkish rebellion. After Serbian rebels besieged the well-fortified city on February 1st, 1822, Russians sent troops to help. However, the siege was difficult due to thin supply routes, which often demoralized the coalition force at times. Fortunately, the French were able to send supplies through the Illyrian Provinces, allowing the pressure to be relieved at some cases. The seizing of Belgrade led to the independence of Serbia, Montenegro, and Bosnia (in a union with Herzegovina).

However, back at Bulgaria, Selim III made numerous attempts to seize Bulgaria, even going as far to attack Romania. On March 4th, the Turks raided Alexandria, later advancing to Bucharest to siege in. The siege carried on for a month until on April 2nd, the Russians forced him off. meanwhile, Selim III ordered numerous raids on the countryside of southernmost Romania, causing the burning of the countryside, seizing of villagers, and the looting of towns. The Russians led by Peter Wittgenstein helped defend the region against the raids. On April 7th, his army managed to take back Alexandria from the Turks, ending their foothold on southern Romania.

From Plovdiv, Selim III attempted another siege of Sofia. However, a part of the army and military commanders mutinied, seeing the plan as too risky. The caused a conflict in the military camp. The Russian spies, however, took note of this and urged Peter to strike at the city. He listed. On May 2nd, while the Turkish army was constantly fighting each other, the Russians with the help of the Bulgarian rebels struck the city with full force. Eventually, the overwhelmed Turks were forced to flee. Selim III was amongst the Turks who fled from the city.

Eventually, the remainder of the Turkish army was force to flee to southeastern Bulgaria, while the southwestern portion was under Russian-rebel control. Eventually, Bulgaria declared independence from the Ottoman Empire, inspiring rebellions in Ottoman Bulgaria. On May 11th, the Russian-Bulgarian force struck Stara Zagora to support an internal rebellion in the city. Selim III, however, sued for peace. He bribed the Bulgarians 100 million Lira in exchange for a ceasefire. The Bulgarian rebel leaders agreed to the cease-fire in exchange for the recognition of their independence.

French Campaign

On May 2nd, Michel Ney began invading Bosnia from the Illyrian Provinces by capturing Livno, which fell in two days. Because most of the Balkan peoples have been rebelling against the Ottomans, Michel Ney expected everyone in the region to follow the lead. However, only the Croats and Serbs in the region truly joined the conflict. Muslims, Bosnians and pro-Turkish Balkanians opposed independence.

Because neither side would agree to the other's opinion, both sides declared war on each other. The Muslim side had the bigger advantage in terms of numbers. Michel declared support to the Serbs and Croats and began the relentless plan of exterminating the pro-Turkish rebellion. Herzegovina, a region of Bosnia, gained independence with no bloodshed, with many people joining the French to liberate the region.

After Livno fell, Michel Ney attacked Bosnian rebels in Tomislavgrad, which fell on May 6th. On May 10th, Michel captured Kupres with Croat rebels. On May 13th, Glamoc was captured, though they faced a slight rebellion in the city which was put down by the next day.

Drvar was captured on May 16th with another slight rebellion put down by the next day. This was followed by Bihac on May 22nd, Bosanska Krupa on May 25th, Buzim on May 29th, Kljuc on April 9th, Sanski Most on April 15th, Novi Grad on April 19th, and Prijedor on April 24th.

The defeat of Shipka Peak, Bulgarian War of Independence

Siege of Banja Luka

Michel then besieged Banja Luka on April 29th. The siege lasted until May 24th, when the Ottoman garrison under Muhammad Ali surrendered. Dobretici was captured on June 3rd followed by Bugojino on June 10th, Busovaca on June 14th, Jajce on June 19th, Travnik on June 24th, Vitex on July 1st, and Kresevo on June 17th.

Finally, Sarajevo was exposed to invasion. On June 28th, the city was besieged. The siege was extremely difficult due to the fact that Bosnian uprisings in villages and towns caused difficulties for the French troops.Because of this, Michel ordered a retreat on August 3rd to defend some parts of the region from rebels.

Michel defeated the rebels in Travnik on August 14th, Drvar on August 29th, and Tomislavgrad on September 13th. After a while, he returned to Sarajevo on October 1st, where he once again besieged the city. This time, the city fell on November 27th.

With the Ottomans driven away from Bosnia, it seemed that peace has finally settled. However, it has not. With pro-Turkish rebellions popping up in many places, Michel had a lot of work to do. Because the east was mostly rebel territory, he headed there.

The rebels were defeated at Gotazde on December 9th, followed by Istocno Sarajevo on December 12th, Pale on December 14th, Visegrad on December 19th. However, due to the winter, it put a great strain on the troops' supplies and morale as rebels began to harass supply lines. With the Serbs and Croats constantly fighting pro-Turkish rebels, however, the pressure on the French was relieving.

On January 6th, Zvornik was captured, followed by Bijeljina on January 15th, and Brcko on January 24th. Finally, on January 26th, the Russians arrived at Brcko, where both sides begin planning for the assault on Constantinople.

French-Russian Campaign

On May 17th, the Russians and French met in Sofia to liberate Macedonia, Albania, and Greece from Ottoman rule
January Suchodolski - Akhaltsikhe siege

Siege of Skopje

and eventually sack Constantinople. On April 2nd, the French-Russian coalition force (with rebels from all over the newly-freed independent Balkan countries) marched to Skopje. However, the journey was difficult due to the steep terrain and poor roads. Turkish and pro-Turkish Balkan loyalists in the region also constantly attacked supply routes, often fatiguing the army at times.

During the siege, the Turks led by Selim III built formidable defenses around the city. A deep trench was dug around the city, thus making the battle difficult for the coalition. Eventually after two months, they dug around the trench, and attacked the city from the downtown area. It did not take long for Selim III to be murdered in the battle, demoralizing the Turkish army then on. However, a pro-Turkish mob in the city clashed with Albanian rebels and the coalition army, causing a riot that occurred until April 5th, when the pro-Turkish Macedonians were forced to flee the city.

220px-Berlin.Brandenburger Tor

Pro-Turkish Riots in Sarajevo

However, on April 21st, pro-Turkish Bosnians, Macedonians, and Muslims begin to riot against French and Russian occupation, who demand the return to Turkish rule. However, the newly independent countries, France, and Russia obviously refused to recognize their demands. In April 24th, the French attacked Sarajevo to stop a pro-Turkish riot, which lasted for 14 days until the rioters were dead.

On April 25th, the French-Russian force besieged Tirana for four months. Despite Turkish efforts, losses in the Caucasus, Greece, and Egypt and the threat of the Russian army and navy reaching Constantinople forced the Turks to flee to Thrace, freeing most of the Balkans. On May 2nd, the French-Russian army with Greek and Balkan rebels faced the Turks at Komotini, which led to the coalition victory in the war. On May 12th, the coalition defeated the Turks at Orestiada.

With the war being loss for the Ottomans, territories being taken, and the coalition forces all targeting Constantinople, all forces were commanded to fortify the city. On May 15th, the Russian navy from the Black Sea, the French navy from Egypt, and the Coalition Army from the Balkans besieged Constantinople. On May 21st, due to the extraordinary overwhelming force, the city fell to the Coalition. Obviously, the Turks sued for peace.

African Theater and the Algerian Uprising

African Theater

On April 21st, just after the war began, French general Jacques-Pierre-Louis Puthod invaded Zuwarah from Tunisia. The city was besieged until May 7th, when it was captured. Despite the first victory, however, the French had to struggle with hot and dry weather. This made the perfect environment for Ottoman guerrilla groups to wear down the troops.

On May 15th, Jacques besieged Tripoli, which lasted for several weeks. But due to Ottoman naval aid and the Algerian rebellion, it was constantly difficult to capture the city. Eventually, on April 1st, the city fell to the French. On April 11th, Al Khums was captured by the French a day after it was attacked. However, due to the Algerian rebellion, the French anvy had to assist Jacques for supplies and weapons to prevent the expedition from collapsing.

On April 18th, Misratah was captured, followed by Surt on April 27th, Ras Lanuf on May 9th, and Al Burayqah on May 20th. Benghaizi was besieged on May 29th and fell on June 19th. Al Bayda fell on June 27th and Tobruk on July 4th.

With Tripolitania now French, the Mamluks and Ottomans spared no expense in building up fortifications across. Egypt. In the 1790's Napoleon invaded Egypt to add another region for the French empire. While he was sadly defeated, it did leave a mark in the region. Now, with the French coming back, the Mamluks were to sure that they do not fall again.

On July 12th, Marsa Matrouh fell to the French. However, the main French supply fleet was attacked by Ottoman pirates, while Arab loyalists harassed supply routes in French North Africa. With the Algerian Uprising waning, however, more supplies were able to reach the troops. Yet there were great difficulties in Egypt due to lack of supply.

Despite the troubles, Jacques did not give up. On July 25th, he besieged the Ottomans and Mamluks at Alexandria. With the help of the French navy, which prevented the Ottoman navy from bringing in any re-inforcements, the French broke into the city on August 12th. On August 17th, Jacques captured Damanhur and Tanta on August 22nd.

300px-La prise de Constantine 1837 par Horace Vernet

Siege of Cairo

On September 6th, the French reached Cairo beginning one of the most epic battles in Egyptian history. The French navy, which attempted to cross the Nile River to Cairo, got stuck in Mansoura by Ottoman troops on September 7th, forcing a battle there which ended in the slaughtering of all French at the site. On September 12th, reinforcements from mainland Spain under Francisco Castanos arrived to assist. On September 16th, Ottoman-hired pirates attacked the French at Tanta, forcing some troops at Cairo to divert to the city to defend it. The pirates were defeated on September 19th. By October 9th, Cairo fell to the French, forcing the Ottomans and Mamluks to retreat to the south.

On October 14th, the French won a decisive victory at Faiyun, followed by Ben Suef on October 18th, Minya on October 21th, and Asyut on October 27th. However, while attempting to chase the Mamluks, the French were defeated at Kharga due to desert isolation and harassment of supply routes. They later headed off to Luxor on November 4th, where they managed to defeat the local garrison there. As he advanced, farmers burned all their crops to ensure the French did not find anything useful.

On November 8th, Jacques invaded Qena and seized the city a day later. His plan was to stick to the Nile River because after the experience from Kharga, he did not want the experience again. On November 15th, he captured Aswan, though Qene was taken back by the Mamluks and Ottomans two days, later, causing loss of contact in terms of communication and supplies. Jacques was forced to return on November 26th and managed to retake the city.
Abu-Simbel-XX-Frederick-Arthur-Bridgeman-xx-Private-collection

Jacques' discovery of the Abu Simbel

Later, on December 13th, the French defeated the Mamluks at Edfu and at Kom Ombo on December 24th. On January 4th of 1822, Kacques stumbled on the famous Ancient Egyptian monuments: the Abu Simbel. On January 22nd, archaeologists sent by Jacques investigated the site, uncovering ancient Egyptian history along the way.

With the Mamluks and Ottomans establishing their main base in Khartoum, Jacques began the journey to hunt them down. He headed to Dongola on February 18th, where he defeated the Ottomans and Mamluks. Ad-Damir was captured on February 26th.

Jacques arrived at Khartoum on March 4th, beginning the epic siege that would be the last straw for the Ottomans and Mamluks. On March 21st, Louis arrived from Algeria to assist Jacques in the siege. On April 17th, the city fell, forcing the Ottomans and the Mamluks to surrender.

Both sides signed the Treaty of Khartoum, which forced the Mamluks out of power and forced the Ottomans to leave all of its African possessions to the French.

Algerian Uprising

Vers79 girodet 001f

Rebellion in Algiers

Meanwhile, in Algeria, Abdelkader El Djezairi led a rebellion in Algiers on April 28th to resist French rule. With Jacques away, another French general Louis-Nicholas Davout was sent to deal with the rebellion. Although by the rebellion was done with by May 11th, the influence of the event spread all across Algeria. With support of the Ottomans, they attacked French military forts and governmental buildings in the region.
Abdelkader rallied rebels from the Ain Defla and Medea provinces to take
220px-Abd al-Qadir-1-

Abdelkader El Djezairi

back the city. On May 23rd, the French clashed with rebel forces in Ain Defla, forcing Abdelkader to flee to Djelfa. When the French were chasing him, hot weather were constantly battering the troops. Also, supply routes were constantly harassed by Algerian rebels. On June 12th, Abdelkader surprised Louis in Charef. Having being cut away from their needed supplies, Louis retreated to the mountains. There, he defeated Abdelkader in Tissemsilt on June 21st and later Bouira on June 2nd.

Despite the successes, the desert was often a good hiding place for Abdelkader to operate, and lack of the knowledge of the region made finding him very difficult. On August 14th, Louis ordered papers across the region lending a bounty of 50 million francs for anyone who can capture or kill Abdelkader as long as he (or his head if dead) was brought to French authorities.

Louis defeated Algerian rebels in Relizane on August 17th, Chlef of August 23rd, and Mascara on September 6th. Although the Algerians were greatly crushed, Abdelkader was nowhere to be seen. On September 14th, an expedition was sent to the region of Illizi where locals claimed they have seen him there. However, on October 10th, the expedition came back battered with no success.

On October 23rd, Louis was defeated by Algerians in Saida and later in Sidi Bel Abbes on November 13th. In Sidi Bel Abbes, Abdelkader was injured, though not captured in the battle. After receiving the news from the spies, Louis was confident that striking at the enemy camp in Ain Temouchent. On November 28th, French troops stormed the camp, but realized the rebels left just before they can captured Abdelkader.

As winter was approaching. Louis was confident it was now okay to go to the desert to pursue Abdelkader. On December 7th, he ventured to Lagohouat, where he defeated Algerian rebels. However, as they went farther and farther south, the situation was not going so good for the inexperienced French. On December 14th, Louis was defeated in El Bayadah. This was followed by two defeats at Adar on January 3rd, 1823, and Bechar on January 15th.

Due to the lack of supplies, Louis was formed to retreat to the mountainside to recover his army before pursuing Abdelkader any more further.By January 24th, he began to once again pursue Abdelkader. In El Oued, he managed to crush Abdelkader's forces there. By that time, Abdelkader has recovered from his injury much to the dismay of Louis.

On February 3rd, Louis battled Algerian rebels in Ourgla. During the battle, Abdelkader was killed, greatly demoralizing the Algerian resistance. On February 23rd, their finally had the blow when Louis defeated them in Oran despite difficulties.

Both sides signed the Treaty of Algiers. In the treaty, all rebel leaders are executed for rebellion. Other rebels were sent to prison for life. With the situation in Algeria put to rest, Louis went on with his forces to Egypt to assist Jacques.

Anatolian Theater Part One

While Russia was marching through the Balkans, Russian forces under Mikhail Kutuzov attacked the Ottoman Empire from
Charge1

Battle of Erzurum

the Caucasus. The goal was to secure Turkish Armenia and Kurdistan. On April 11th, the Russians captured Ardahan, followed by Kars on April 19th, Igdir on April 27th, Agri on May 6th, Erzurum on May 21st, Artvin on June 4th, and Rize on June 17th.

The capture of Artvin and Rize allowed supplies and weapons from Russia to cross the Black Sea and deliver them to the Russian military. Meanwhile, Mikhail captured Erzincan on June 26th, Tunceli on July 13th, Elazig on July 23rd, Bingol on August 5th, and Mus on August 11th.

On August 26th, Mikhail besieged the city Manzikert, 750 years after the Turks besieged it against the Byzantines. The siege lasted until September 17th, when the garrison surrendered. On September 21st, Bitlis was captured, followed by Van on September 28th, Hakkari on October 4th, and Siirt on October 10th.

However, the Ottomans struck back at the Russians, capturing Elazing, Tunceli, and Erzincan by October 16th. Mikhail sent a part of his men to recapture the cities. By November 2nd, they were back in Russian hands. Despite victories, the mountains of Anatolia were a major hindrance to the Russian troops. Poor roads and constant attacks by Turkish guerrillas often weighed down the troops' morale.

Kurdish Theater

The Russians begin to advance in the Kurdish region. Sirnak was captured on October 23rd followed by Mardin on October 28th, Batman on November 5th, Diyarbakir on November 9th, Sanliurfa on November 16th, Adiyaman on November 27th, Gazi Antep on December 3rd, and Kilis on December 5th.

With all regions of historical Armenia now under Russian control, Mikhail headed south to take over Kurdistan. Dohuk was conquered on January 21st, 1822, followed by Erbil on February 8th, Mosul on February 19th, Sulaymaniyah on February 27th, and Kirkuk on March 4th.

Anatolian Theater Part Two

With Mikhail completing his objective in the region, he can now head to Constantinople, where the French and Russians are planning to siege it. However, there were pro-Turkish rebellions in the region. Mikhail defeated the rebellions one by one, including Kirkuk on March 6th, Kilis on March 24th, Bitlis on April 24th, Van on May 8th, Siirt on May 19th, Mus on April 2nd, Tunceli on April 13th, Elazig on April 28th, adn Hakkari on May 14th.

With the rebellion over, Mikhail was able to trek to Constantinople. Trabzon fell on July 6th, followed by Giresun on July 9th, Ordu on July 15th, Samsun on July 26th, Sinop on August 7th, Kastamonu on August 11th, Bartin on August 17th, Zonguldak on September 3rd,and Duzce on November 13th, after experiencing a siege that began on September 6th.

Sakarya was later captured on January 6th, followed by Kocaeli on January 9th. Sile was captured on January 13th and later Umraniye on January 17th. Now at the doorstep at Constantinople, Mikhail waited patiently for everyone else to come to attack Constantinople on April.

Greek War of Independence

Epanastasi

Greek patriots declaring the independence of Greece

After the Peloponnese Uprising, it step the whole stage for war. By May, most of the region was under great unrest. French general Nicolas Oudinot, Russian general Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly, and Italian general Eugene de Beauharnais all volunteered to train the Greek rebel rabble army. On May 3rd, Alexander Ypsilantis was proclaimed the leader of the rebellion. On May 7th, the Peloponnesse region was proclaimed independent after Ottoman authorities fled the country. War has just begun, and there was no stopping this fact.

Pamphlets have been secretly been smuggled into Ottoman Greece, where they reached important cities such as Athens, Thessaloniki, and Patras. Greece declared war on May 21st by capturing Lamia, causing a chain reaction of uprisings and Ottoman counter invasions. On June 3rd, Athens was besieged, with lasted for many months. In northern Greece, revolts in Patras, Larissa, Volos, and Chalcis during June and July disrupted the Ottoman military. On September 11th, the city fell.

From Lamia, Larissa was besieged on September 2nd and fell on November 6th. That same time, a coalition of French, Spanish, and Italian navies requested by Nicolas arrived at the Ionian Islands. Corfu fell on September 19th along with Ithaca on September 22nd, Kefalonia on September 23rd, Lefkada on September 26th, Zakynthos on September 29th. Eventually, this was used as a base for French and Italian troops to support the Greeks in subduing the Ottomans in the region.

Piraues was later captured by the Greeks on September 20th. Meanwhile, Livadeia was captured on September 15th, followed by Chalcis on September 18th, Karpenisi on September 21st, and Amfissa on September 25th. however, this greatly drained the manpower of the Greek rebel fighting force, causing a increasing reliability of the French empire to provide men and supplies.

Siege-and-Naval-Battle 44 -Plate13 44 -Pictorial-History-of-the-Greek-War-of-Independence

An artist's perspective of the Battle of Chania

Crete was the next target of the French navy. On October 4th, the fleet landed at Chania, staging an invasion of Crete. On October 9th, a combined French-Greek force captured Rethymno with the help of the French navy. By the time Lasithi was captured on October 14th, Crete was now considered Greek. Suffering many defeats, the Ottoman navy was restricted to the Aegan Sea. After a defeat at Ermoupoli on October 22nd, the Ottoman navy quickly retreated north. However, when Mytilene fell on October 24th, all Ottoman
000803 xlarge

Defeat of the Ottoman Navy at Ermoupoli

influence in the Aegan was obliterated.

On October 7th, Missolonghi fell to Franco-Greek forces, followed by Pyrgos on October 13th, Arta on October 28th, Ioannina on November 8th, Preveza on November 11th, and Igoumenitsa on November 16th. Despite a defeat at Karditsa on November 21st, it fell on December 3rd, which was often a month of relief for the people living in the hot region. Other victories include Larissa on December 8th, Volos on December 15th, and Trikala on December 27th.

On January 3rd, Ottoman forces built Fort Athos named after the mountain it sat one. On January 18th, 1822, Greek and French forces struck at that fort, leading to a six month siege that ended on July 9th, ending all Ottoman control over Greece.

The Treaty of Athens was signed on July 17th, which recognized Greek independence and its already conquered territories.

Treaty of Constantinople

After Constantinople fell on May 21st, 1823, the Ottomans were forced to sue for peace as the French and Russians surrounded the Topkapi Palace. On 12:14 PM, Sultan
The Persian Envoy Mirza Mohammed Reza Qazvini Finkenstein Castle 27 Avril 1807 by Francois Mulard

Treaty of Constantinople

Mahmud II met with Pyotr and Mikhail of Russia, Michel, Jacques, and Louis of France, where they signed the Treaty of Constantinople in the Topkapi Palace. Due to their victory in the war, the Coalition were the main controllers of the negotiation table. The terms were:
  1. France receives all of Ottoman Africa
  2. Russia receives Ottoman Armenia and Kurdistan
  3. Bulgaria, Serbia, Bosnia, Macedonia, Romania, and Albania gain independence
  4. Greece is gained independence, composing of Peloponnese, Epirus, Thessalay, Central Greece, Ionia (the Aegean Region of OTL Turkey), Thrace, and the Straits Region
  5. Turkey will pay 50 billion francs and 50 billion rubles to France and Russia

Legacy

The War left a lasting legacy in the Balkans. To the peoples there, it was a time of joy and celebration, who were finally able to achieve independence after centuries of harsh Muslim rule. Many pro-Turks and Muslims were harshly constantly persecuted by their Christian neighbors, which often went unchecked by their pro-Christian governments. This caused ethnic cleansing across the region, forcing thousands to flee to Turkey as a safe haven.

The annexation of Ottoman Africa by the French was seen as a major achievement for the empire. Now controlling the North African coast, France has a significant influence in the Mediterranean. Egypt provided France with cereal crops and cotton. Eventually, it will also be the site of the fabled Suez Canal.

Russia, in the meantime, rejoiced the fall of Ottoman power in Europe. With one of their greatest enemies now at its knees, there is no threat for Russian access to warm waters of Europe. Thanks to the newly modernized military, Russia was now catching up with the rest of Europe, no longer seen as a backwards nation.

Meanwhile, the Ottoman Empire was greatly devastated by the war. Despite the people demanding him to do so, Mahmud II refused to abdicate the throne. he allowed Muslim refugees from the Caucasus and the Balkans into the empire, feeling remorse for them. However, the need of change was greatly needed. Many people blamed the Janissaries for their defeat in the war, ending their position in the government forever.

However, there were still issues that needed to be faced. In France and Russia, Christians called for their respective countries to seize the Holy Land to gain revenge for the Muslim victory in the Crusades. Alexander, suspicious that the Strait of Dardenelles might be shut off, demanded full control of the Straits region. Napoleon, also suspicious (who feared growing Russian power) refused to do so, handing the power to Greece instead. This led to tensions that led to the First International War.

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