The Federative Socialist Republic of Spain (FSRS) was the government of Spain that existed from 1953 until it was formally dissolved in 1992 amid the Spanish Wars. The FSRS was a single-party socialist federal republic made-up of eight socialist republics: Catalonia and Aragon, Valencian Country, the Balearic Islands, Galicia, Andalusia, Euskalherria, Castile and the Saharan State.
Under the leadership of President Dolores Ibárruri, popularly known as la Pasionaria, Spain pursued a strong pro-soviet policy, though there were some attempts at an approaching to Tito's Yugoslavia. After the death of Ibárruri in 1983, nationalism became a problem as violence erupted between the republics. This led to a violent dissolution of the country in the mid-90s.
After the end of World War II, Spain was ruled by dictator Francisco Franco. During the Potsdam Conference in 1945, Joseph Stalin pressured Harry Truman and Winston Churchill to back an Allied invasion of Spain in revenge for the country's participation in Operation Barbarossa. The other allied leaders agreed and an invasion took place in november 1945. In less then four weeks spanish forces were defeated and Franco went on exile to Peron's Argentina as allied occupation of the country began.
In early 1949, the allied powers began a gradual withdrawal from the country as free elections took place for the first time in 13 years. Miguel Maura, leader of the conservative Party of the Republican Right, was elected President of the Third Spanish Republic and named moderate socialist Julián Besteiro as Prime Minister. He began a series of reforms like administrative decentralisation which were well received by some groups. In 1953, an early election was called and resulted in a plurality of seats of parliament for the Communist Party. Maura decided to overrule the election results and instead nominated conservative José María Gil-Robles for PM. Supporters of the Communist Party took the streets in violent protest, which culminated in the takeover of the Palace of Villamejor, seat of the government. Gil-Robles and Maura, along with most of the members of the cabinet, fled the country to Portugal. Dolores Ibárruri, a popular leader during the Civil War and chairwoman of the communist party became President. The former leader of the Unified Socialist Youths, Santiago Carrillo, became Prime Minister.
During the first decade of the Socialist Republic, Ibárruri and Carrillo consolidated the new regime as the first enduring government in Spain for more than 150 years. Spain became a socialist republic and the westernmost member of the eastern bloc. In 1955, Spain became one of the founding members of the Warsaw Pact and joined the COMECON.
The dawn of the communist régime and its alignment as a soviet satellite put an end to Marshall Plan funding that had helped the country recover from the civil war. Anyway, Spain began to receive important amounts of money from the USSR as a way to help the country develop and abandon its agriculture-based economy. Soon, Spain became an important industrial center of the communist bloc and from the late 1950's it established itself as an important vacation resort for the citizens of Communist Europe. Between 1955 and 1975, farming was superseded by Industry as the major economic activity with tourism and services being tied to agriculture for the second place. By the seventies, Spain had already become the number one touristic destination in the communist bloc and the third one in the world after France and the United States of America.
Pasionaria's death and de-stabilisation of the country
In 1983, President Ibárruri died of cancer. The death of the leader that managed to unite the country and lead it into modernisation left a power void. Ibárruri was succeeded by Prime Minister Santiago Carrillo, new leader of the Communist Party. During his rather short tenure as President the country experienced episodes of unstability with riots breaking up between Catalan and Spanish speaking communities in the catalanoaragonese republic, though the most violent took place between the Spanish speaking and the Basque speaking communities in the Basque country and northern Castile where terrorist actions were carried out by armed gunmen.
In the 1988 central party convention, the proposals of the delegates of the galician, basque, catalan and the balearic party branches were systematically ignored. The delegates of those republics abandoned the party convention and the local branches of the party split. In an effort to calm down the situation, Carrillo resigned and Julio Anguita became the new President. Anguita, who had more open ideas, called for a series of reforms all over the country in an effort to democratise the regime and put an end to the single party system as well as starting modest liberalisation. Reforms didn't have the desired effect and instead contributed to far more conflictivity.
Therefore, in early June 1992, the Balearic Socialist Republic declared independence from the Federative Socialist Republic. This declaration was soon followed by the Basque declaration of independence in June 26th and the Saharan declaration of independence in July 20th. In Barcelona, riots took place in late July, with the people going to the streets to reclaim independence. In July 25th, during the Barcelona Olympic Games' Inauguration ceremony, fighting broke out at the Olympic Stadium and hundreds died. On that night, Prime Minister Semprún sent the Army to Barcelona to restore order, and plans for the invasion of the rogue socialist republics were drawn. That order, given without knowledge of either the President or the Federal Assembly, was revoked by the President. However, that decision did not have any effect as the Prime Minister protagonised a coup against the established power. The Olympic Games were cancelled and the Spanish army tanks roamed through the streets of Barcelona. The capture and posterior execution of President Anguita, an Andalusian, enraged the Andalusian Socialist Republic and it's people, as he was seen as the hero of the people for his visionary policies of opening and democratisation. Thus, the Socialist Republic of Andalucia declared independence and began it's fight against the now decimated forces of Spain. Spain was now shattered and literally split into six different factions fighting each other.
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|Socialist Republic of Andalusia||Seville|| || |
|Socialist Republic of the Balearic Islands||Palma|| || |
|Socialist Republic of the Basque Country||Vitoria-Gasteiz|| || |
|Socialist Republic of Castille||Madrid|| || |
|Socialist Republic of Catalonia|| Barcelona
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|Socialist Republic of Galicia||Santiago de Compostela|| || |
|Socialist Republic of Valencia||Valencia|| || |
|Socialist Republic of Western Sahara||Santa Cruz de Tenerife|| || |