The Federative Socialist Republic of Spain (FSRS) was the government of Spain that existed from 1953 until it was formally dissolved in 1992 amid the Spanish Wars. The FSR was a single-party socialist federal republic made-up of eight socialist republics: Catalonia, Valencia, Balearic Islands, Galicia, Andalusia, Basque Country, Castille and Western Sahara, and one autonomous community, Aragon, which was under the Catalonian socialist republic.
Under the leadership of President Dolores Ibárruri, popularly known as la Pasionaria, Spain pursued a pro-USSR policy, though there were some tries of an approchement with Tito's Yugoslavia. After the death of Ibárruri in 1983, problems with linguistic and ethnic nationalism grew. This led to a violent dissolution of the country in the mid-90s.
After the end of World War II, Spain was ruled by dictator Francisco Franco. During the Potsdam Conference in 1945, Joseph Stalin, leader of the USSR, pushed Harry Truman and Winston Churchill to back an Allied invasion in Spain. The other allied leaders agreed and an invasion took place in late 1945. In mid-1946, the forces of the Francoist regime were defeated. Francisco Franco was exiled to Peron's Argentina and Spain was occupied by the allied powers.
In 1949, the allied powers abandoned the country and elections were celebrated. Miguel Maura, son of five-time Prime Minister Antonio Maura, was elected President of the Third Spanish Republic. He began a series of political reforms like the decentralisation of the country which were well received by some sectors of the society. In 1953, during election day, a full-scale communist takeover took place with help from soviet MVD agents. The Communist Party took control and Dolores Ibárruri, a popular figure during the Civil War and the leader of the party became President. The former leader of the Unified Socialist Youths and number two of the party, Santiago Carrillo, became Prime Minister.
During the first decade of the Socialist Republic, Ibárruri and Carrillo consolidated the new regime as the first stable government in Spain since the 19th century. Spain became a socialist federal republic and the westernmost member of the eastern bloc. In 1955, the government of the young republic became one of the founding members of the Warsaw Pact and joined the COMECON.
The coming of the communist régime and its positioning as a Moscow-aligned country puts an end to the Marshall Plan's money flow coming from the US to Spain. Anyway, Spain begins to receive important amounts of money from the Soviet Union as a way to help the country recover from the Civil War of the thirties and the allied invasion of the forties. Soon, Spain becomes an important industrial center of the eastern bloc, and an important vacation resort for the citizens of Communist Europe, as it is the only country in the soviet sphere of influence with access to the sunny coasts of the Mediterranean sea. Between 1955 and 1975, Agriculture an the primary sector in general went on from being the major economic activity to being the smaller one, being superceded by Industry and Tourism. By the seventies, Spain had already become the number one touristic destination in the communist bloc and the third one in the world after France and the United States of America.
Pasionaria's death and de-stabilisation of the country
In 1983, President Ibárruri, Pasionaria, died. The loss of such a loved and important leader left many around the country empty. She was succeeded by long-time prime minister Santiago Carrillo, new leader of the Communist Party of Spain. During his rather short tenure as President, the country experienced an important period of instability with ethno-linguistic riots between Catalan and Spanish speaking communities, though the most violent took place between the Spanish speaking and the Basque speaking communities in the Basque country and northern Castile. In the 1988 central party convention, the proposals of the delegates of the Basque Country, Catalonia and the Balearic islands were systematically ignored. The delegates of said republics abandoned the party convention and the local branches of the party in those republics abandoned the federal party. In an effort to calm down the situation, Carrillo resigned and Julio Anguita became the new President. Anguita, who had more democratic views, initiated a series of reforms all over the country in an effort to democratise the regime and put an end to the single party system, so that the people could have their say in the country's governance. His plans, however, didn't have the desired effect. They just gave the leaders of the Catalonian, Balearic, Basque and Saharan republics the impression they could do whatever they wanted.
Therefore, in early June 1992, the Balearic Socialist Republic declared independence from the Federative Socialist Republic. This declaration was soon followed by the Basque declaration of independence in June 26th and the Saharan declaration of independence in July 20th. In Barcelona, riots took place in late July, with the people going to the streets to reclaim independence. In July 25th, during the Barcelona Olympic Games' Inauguration ceremony, fighting broke out at the Olympic Stadium and hundreds died. On that night, Prime Minister Semprún sent the Army to Barcelona to restore order, and plans for the invasion of the rogue socialist republics were drawn. That order, given without knowledge of either the President or the Federal Assembly, was revoked by the President. However, that decision did not have any effect as the Prime Minister protagonised a coup against the established power. The Olympic Games were cancelled and the Spanish army tanks roamed through the streets of Barcelona. The capture and posterior execution of President Anguita, an Andalusian, enraged the Andalusian Socialist Republic and it's people, as he was seen as the hero of the people for his visionary policies of opening and democratisation. Thus, the Socialist Republic of Andalucia declared independence and began it's fight against the now decimated forces of Spain. Spain was now shattered and literally split into six different factions fighting each other.
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|Socialist Republic of Andalusia||Seville|| || |
|Socialist Republic of the Balearic Islands||Palma|| || |
|Socialist Republic of the Basque Country||Vitoria-Gasteiz|| || |
|Socialist Republic of Castille||Madrid|| || |
|Socialist Republic of Catalonia|| Barcelona
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|Socialist Republic of Galicia||Santiago de Compostela|| || |
|Socialist Republic of Valencia||Valencia|| || |
|Socialist Republic of Western Sahara||Santa Cruz de Tenerife|| || |