Federation of Socialist Republics (FSR) is a socialist federal state that has existed in most of the former Russian Empire in Eurasia since 1923.
The Federation was founded in March 1923, when the Russian FSR, which was established during the Russian Revolution of 1918 and emerged victorious in the ensuing Russian Civil War, signed the Treaty of Federation with the Transcaucasian FSR, SR of Ukrainian and SR of Belorussian.
The Federation Treaty proclaimed the need to establish a voluntary union of the emerging socialist states against the threat of the forces of imperialism and reaction. To safeguard the socialist revolutions and the dictatorship of the proletariat the signatory parties agree to cooperate and help each other according to the principles of proletarian internationalism and establish the FSR for that purpose.
The former Russian Asia stayed aloof becoming the Socialist Union of Turkestan (SUT) in 1919. However it has kept links with with the FSR through a series of treaties and alliances. This would be later formalized in the International Community of Socialist States.
Organization of the FSR
The federal constitution approved in 1924 established the organization of the FSR.
- the supreme organ of power is the Supreme Council (or Soviet) of the FSR. It is composed of the Federal Council (11 deputies for each socialist republic and 5 deputies for each federal entity of the member socialist republics) and the People's Council (one deputy for each 300.000 habitants). Each chamber is elected directly by the people every 5 years. The Supreme Council is the legislative body of the FSR. It elects every 5 years the Presidium and the Council of People's Commissars, the Supreme Court of the FSR and the Federal Prosecutor.
- the executive power resides in the Presidium of the Supreme Council, that is, the collective head of state. It is integrated by a Chairman and one vice chairmen for each member socialist republic and 2 members from each socialist republic. The Council of People's Commissars carries out all the executive and administrative functions of the FSR. The Presidium and the Council of People's Commissars are responsible before the Supreme Council.
- the judiciary in in charge of the Supreme Court of the FSR and the Federal Prosecutor.
Executive and administrative business are distinguished between:
- the federal affairs such as defense, foreign relations, foreign commerce, communications and postal and telegraph services
- federal and republic affairs such has economic planning, supplies, finances, labor, industries and energy, and
- republic affairs such as interior (police and public order), health, public education, social welfare, agriculture, justice and housing
|Member State||Capital||Area (km2)||Languages||Federal Entities or similar within Member states|
|Socialist Republic of Belarus||Minsk||207,595||Bielorussian and Russian||Polish and Yiddish Autonomous Districts and Urban Settlements (2 separate electoral districts)|
|Russian Federative Socialist Republic||Moscow||17,075,400||Russian (and various languages (administratively recognized in ASR, AO and National Okrugs)||Several autonomous socialist republics, autonomous oblast, and autonomous okrug.|
|Transcaucasian Federal Socialist Republic||Tbilisi||186.100||Armenian, Azarbaijani Georgian and Russian||SR of Armenia, SR of Azerbaijan and SR of Georgia. Abkhaz ASR, South Ossetia ASR, Adjar AO and Nakhchivan AO.|
|Socialist Republic of Ukraine||Kharviv - Kiev||520,700||Ukrainian, Crimean Tartar and Russian||Autonomous Oblast of Crimea and Polish Autonomous District|
On of the provisions of Treaty of Federation was the assignment of the defense has a federal sphere of action. The People's Commissariat for the Defense (former People's Commissariat for the Military and Naval Affairs) is the nominal commander of all the federal armed forces, in whom executive authority over the military is vested. In this capacity, the People's Commissar exercises day-to-day operational authority over the armed forces. Research and industrial military complex are in charge of the State Commission of the Military Industry.
From the Belorussian Workers' and Peasants' Revolutionary Army (BWPRA), Transcaucasian People's Defense Organization (TPDO), Russia's Workers'-Peasants' Red Army (RKKA in Russian) and Ukrainian Peoples' Military Organization (UPMO) a unified military structure was formed, the Federal Workers'-Peasants' Red Army. Its organized in the following branches
- Ground Army (or Red Army)
- Red Naval Fleet
- Military Air Forces
- Air Defence Forces
- OSOAVIAKhIM, a volunteer paramilitary sports society
At all levels of the Red Army, and prior organizations, a political commissar (politruk) is the supervisory political officer responsible for the political education (ideology) and organization, and committed to the civilian control of the military.
Military service is obligatory for men and women of ages 18 to 40, who must serve a conscription term (12 months in the army, 24 in the navy and air force) and after that can enroll for a ten year service. The People's Commissariat for the Defense publishes an official newspaper Krasnaya Zvezda (Red Star).
Transports and Communications
In the FSR transport and communications are a state-federal affairs. They come under the direction of the People's Commissariats for Post and Telegraph (Narkompochtel), for Railways, for Merchant Marine, for Transport. The operational administrations are
- Directorate of Mail and Telegraphs
- Directorate of the Merchant Fleet/Morflot (Morskoi flot) - regional groups and 16 companies
- Commercial FSR Fleet
- Freighters and Passenger Ships FSR Shipping Company
- Trade and Fishing Fleet FSR Shipping Company
- Technological Fleet FSR Shipping Company
- Directorate of Civil Air Fleet (Aeroflot). Sole operator of the FSR airship and rotary propulsion airplanes
- Directorate of Federal Railroads (Federal Railroads, FZD). It administers the Federal Railroads (Federativnaya Zheleznaya Doroga (FZD)
- Directorate of Land Transport. It is in charge of the planification and development of all road transport (passenger and cargo) between the member republics and inter-republic land transit of cargo and passengers.
The broadcasting services are coordinate by the State Committee for Television and Radio Broadcasting (Gosteleradio) and executed by Broadcasting Social Enterprises.
The movie industry is organized around the State Committee for Cinematography (Goskino) and its member republics committees, and Cinematographic Production Collectives. Goskino and its republic counterparts are in charge of distribution and public funding. They can also commission productions in closed or open bids.