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Brazil (Portuguese: Brasil) officially the Federal Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: República Federativa do Brasil) is a country in eastern South America and the largest of the continent. With the third largest population, the country is home to almost half of the entire population of South America. The federation is divided into 28 states, the federal district of Brasilia, and more than 5,560 municipalities. After declaring independence from Portuguese rule, Brazil became a federal republic in November 27th, 1810. Through a strong alliance with the United States, Brazil fought actively in all major international conflicts consolidating them as the "southern player".
With the United States and Argentina, Brazil is a founding member of the influential American Group (Grupo Americano) and the current chairman of the South American Community of Nations (Comunidad Sudamericana de Naciones).
Viannization & the March
As the Old Republic came to its final days, Governor of Bahia Luiz Vianna initiated the March for Freedom & Conscience, a political and social movement to restore "the true message of democracy, this republic, and the freedoms we were all born with". The march started the process of Viannization, named after Vianna.In his first speech to the city of Salvador, Vianna garnered enough support to begin marching across the state. He appealed to the multiracial majorities who lived in miserable conditions and were virtually ignored by the federal government in Rio de Janeiro. The march gained momentum and was starting to become a national event as the media provided more coverage each day. With more than 10,000 people marching for civil rights in the region, Vianna decided to take the march to a national level and begin to solidify their protest to the government of General Prudencio Moralhes. The march had more than 21,000 concerned Brazilians marching by January 1900. On his famous Eu não quero mais (I do not want more) speech delivered in front of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Vianna gave the final ultimatum to General Moralhes to "change or be changed". Moralhes, his vice-president, and cabinet resigned two weeks later when the March reached the count of 3,000,000 protesters in Rio de Janeiro.
No one dared to succeed Moralhes as president in respect to Governor Vianna who became the de facto leader of Brazil.
On a constant threat to continue the march and gather even more support from the people, the National Congress established the first Constitutional Convention with the intent to modify the constitution in anyway needed but pursuant to the need to democratize and open the country. With little obstacles and an unanimous spirit, the Federal Constitution of the Republic of Brazil was consagrated.