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The Fatimid Caliphate or al-Fātimiyyūn (Arabic الفاطميون) is an Arab Shia Dynasty that rules most of North Africa, and at certain times, sections of the Middle East and Southern Europe. It was formed in 909 AD, from territory the Abbasid Caliphate had receded from. The caliphate was ruled by the Fatimids, who established the Egyptian city of Cairo as their capital. The term Fatimite is sometimes used to refer to the citizens of this caliphate, although Christian Europe continues to refer to them as "Saracens" (a term normally applied to the Abbasids as well). The ruling elite of the state belonged to the Ismaili branch of Shiism. The leaders of the dynasty were also Shia Ismaili Imams, hence, they had a religious significance to Ismaili Muslims. They are also part of the chain of holders of the office of Caliph, although it is continued to be questioned not only by the Abbasid Caliphate, but by the Caliphate at Córdoba as well; which represented the remnants of the previous Ummayad Dynasty.
Conflicts in the West started even before 933 AD, where Abd-ar-Rahman III; the first Caliph of Córdoba fought with the Fatimids to secure territory in North Africa. Fatimid Expansionism however would lead it to Sicily forming an Emirate by 965, and establishing another on the Italian Mainland called the Emirate of Catanzaro. Back in North Africa, in 969 they solidified their conquest of the Ikhshidid Dynasty by founding their new Capital at Cairo.
- Abū Muḥammad ˤAbdu l-Lāh (ˤUbaydu l-Lāh) al-Mahdī bi'llāh (909-934) founder Fatimid dynasty
- Abū l-Qāsim Muḥammad al-Qā'im bi-Amr Allāh (934-946)
- Abū Ṭāhir Ismā'il al-Manṣūr bi-llāh (946-953)
- Abū Tamīm Ma'add al-Mu'izz li-Dīn Allāh (953-975) Ikhshidid Dynasty defeated, conquests in Italy
- Abū Manṣūr Nizār al-'Azīz bi-llāh (975-996)
- Abū 'Alī al-Manṣūr al-Ḥākim bi-Amr Allāh (996-) Caliph at time of First Crusade