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Great Nuclear War
The Great Nuclear War did not immediately effect the Falkland Islands. However, contact with their mother nation, the United Kingdom, was broken, and the islands were left stranded. However, the nearby state of Argentina quickly offered them help, and trade deals were set up. The governor, Sir Edwin Porter Arrowsmith, KCMG, took up the role of head of state.
Main Article: Falklands War
However, in 1976 the Argentine Government was overthrown in a Coup, replacing Isabel Martínez de Peron with Jorge Rafael Videla, leader of the Militaristic Junta. Whilst this Junta was less than friendly with the Falklands, and cutt many deals, it seemed unlikely that they'd take any action against the Falklands. However, in 1981, Leopoldo Galtieri became the new President of the Junta. Four months into his leadership, his popularity proved to be extremely low, and a plan was hatched to improve public morale.
On the April 2nd 1982, Argentine troops landed in South Georgia, and overthrew the small group of Royal Marines still stationed there. Receiving reports, the Falklands government protested, and began to prepare for an invasion. Concurrently, Argentine Troops landed in Port Stanley. By the end of the day Stanley had fell and the government fell, and over the next few days the rest of the Islands was under Argentine control.
Life under Argentine rule was difficult. Some actions were taken against Britons, but on the most hand there was little resistance by the Islanders, knowing that no help from the UK was coming. At the same time Argentines, often with little choice, were "encouraged" to settle on the islands and Spanish was made the official language in many quarters, including government and schools, making life difficult.
However, in 1986, after failures continued, Galtieri was deposed and accused of Human Rights. Reynaldo Bignone, formally a Major in the Army, was appointed President. There he started democratic reforms, though also granted amnesty to human rights abusers, himself including. In 1987 the first free elections for over two decades were held, with Raúl Alfonso elected as President, and promptly reversed Bignone's amnesties. Over the next few years he was to take out democratic reforms, preventing any further coups. On the 2nd April 1989, seven years after direct Argentine rule, the Falklands were granted Free Association Status, allowing democratic home rule. Whilst Spanish remained in official and educational use alongside English, many Argentines emigrated back to the mainland, though many stayed too.