Although using a one-party system, the countries of the All-Soviets Union have multiple groups, called factions, which operate along similar lines to political parties abroad. The main difference is that factions may only oppose a certain motion until a decision is made, following which, in accordance with the principles of Democratic Centralism, the various factions must support the winning motion.

In most Soviet Republics, the factions are variations of one of these groups:

  • Left Opposition: In favour of forced collectivisation and exporting the revolution. Opposed to what they perceive as associating with non-socialist countries. Their support comes mainly from urban workers.
  • Central Opposition: In favour of state-controlled economy, and of firmly establishing socialism in one country before trying to export the revolution. Their support is to be found in the bureaucracy.
  • Right Opposition: In favour of a mixed system of cooperative and individual entrepreneurship. Favours a detente with non-socialist countries. Believes that a socialist revolution must only come from local elements and not from foreign meddling. Their support mostly comes from the peasants.