Back to Explorers 1452



  • France launches an invasion of Brittany, capturing a majority of the east this year.
  • England offers France a truce to end the 100 Years War. They also strike into Scotland, securing Ayrshire and most of the lowlands.
  • The Empire of Trebizond, seeing Georgia's states divided among themselves, launches an assault on Georgian territories. The local population, frustrated by the constant instability in the area, welcomes this as a new form of order.
  • Muscovy invades the smaller states to its south, while avoiding war with Poland-Lithuania.
  • Portugal renews its alliance with England. Eager to expand its' mercantile influence in the Mediterranean, Portugal offers Trebizond relatively large amounts of weaponry, armor, and general supplies in exchange for duty-free transactions for Portuguese merchants in any port city that Trebizond controls. Also, a strike at Grenada captures Gibraltar. Combined with the small Portuguese holdings in northern Morocco, Portugal now has complete control over the Straits.
  • Castille launches an invasion against Granada. Tarifa is captured
  • Florence makes a call for "Unified Italy", and invades Genoa. The Genoese, based on sea power, are easily defeated on land. Portions of Massa-Carra are conquered, and the Florentines offer Genoa a surrender so that Italy might be unified more easily.
  • The Papal States ask that Rhodes be ceded to them by the Republic of Venice. "In all favor of the pope and Christendom", the Papacy wishes to establish an outpost by which new Crusades may possibly be launched against the Ottoman Empire.
  • The Ottoman Empire invades and captures provinces to the East and South East (securing all of Anatolia with the exception of lands held by the Byzantines and the Empire of Trebizond).



  • The Empire of Trebizond decides to grant the Portuguese the ports they want on the Black Sea. They give Portugal exclusive trade rights in Pontus and Georgia. In return, the Trapezuntine Greeks ask that the Portuguese help keep them safe from the raids of the Genoese there. The emperor also insists that they supply him with the latest in gunpowder technology, including heavy artillery (For both land and sea) and 'hand'-guns. Meanwhile, with Byzantine control over their Crimean territory weakened, Trebizond sends an invasion force there to secure it for themselves.
  • The Papacy sends its tiny fleet to Rhodes and occupies it, having received no answer from the Venetians. The pope assures the Doge of Venice that he is acting in the best interests of the church and Christendom. Meanwhile, the island itself is granted to a Papal Knightly order known as 'Knights of the Vatican'.
  • Scotland cedes most of the Western Lowlands north of the Tweed to England. Scotland begins a period of political centralisation as the King consolidates the smaller regions into larger regions with more powerful lords. The King of Scotland also bans the use of private armies.
  • The King of Aragon is alarmed by Castilian and Portuguese expansion near the Straits of Gibraltar, and invades Navarre in order to obtain an Atlantic port. The war is bloody but successful. Navarre is incorporated into Aragon as a Duchy, and is semi-autonomous, with the exception of its short coast on the Bay of Biscay, which becomes Crown Land belonging directly to the King.
  • The Ottomans invade the holy land territories.
  • A Portuguese fleet lands at Tunis, taking the city and the peninsula that it is located on. A second force lands and captures the small port town known as Khadjibey on the Black Sea, giving them a base of operations there.
  • The English King Henry VI establishes a standing force of archers known as the Yeomanary. At its founding, it consists of 7000 longbowmen, 400 mounted sergeants, and a 700-man logistics unit. The army immediately moves into Ireland, taking Antrim and most of Northern Ireland by year's end.
  • Castilian kings finish conquering Granada, and start a tolerance policy on Southern Spain. At the same time, they start exploring the Atlantic.
  • Florentines conquer Genoa. Soon, the Genoan rebellions are quenched because of Florence's claim to "be a unifier and strengthener force".
  • France makes a further advance into Brittany, capturing almost all of Brittany's land.
  • Muscovy begins moving more troops to occupy the states to the south.



  • The Empire of Trebizond, armed with weaponry supplied by the Portuguese, begin to build up their military forces into a professional, modernized, standing army. The grateful Trapezuntine Greeks also offer to supply armed escorts to Portuguese merchant ships in the Black Sea, which would discourage Italian, Turkish, and Byzantine harassment, as well as raiders and pirates. The Portuguese agree.
  • The Papal States send warm recognition to the agreed union between Florence and Genoa. The pope seems largely oblivious to the fact that the Florentines forcibly attacked the Genoese in order to achieve it.
  • Portugal declares open war on the Hafsids. Northern Tunisia is captured this year. Due to the agreement with the Trapezuntine Greeks, Portugal is able to use more of her navy to explore the waters surrounding Africa. Small trading posts are established at OTL Malabo, Dakar, and Sao Vincente. Several charter colonies are also established in the Cape Verde Islands.
  • English troops capture Cork and most of the south. All that is left of the Irish chiefdoms is various small holdings on the west coast, and lands north of the Shannon and west of Londonberry. A semi-professional navy is introduced, consisting of eight galleons and 15 barques (it's not meant to stand alone, but rather as a core for a hired-comandeered fleet that England would have in a time of war).
  • France finishes off the remainder of Brittany's forces and conquers their remaining land.
  • Muscovy forces move away from the south and instead begin to invade to the north, but steering clear of Novgorod.
  • Florence sends ultimatums to Venice and Milan: They must resign to the Florentines or they will declare war. The Florentines are the strongest land fighting force on Italy by now, but still both nations repeal the ultimatum.
  • Castille expands into Morocco.
  • Aragon, seeking to compete with Portugal, lands armies in Oran and Melilla. An explorer sets out from Barcelona down the coast of Africa with a small fleet of ships poorly copied from the Portuguese.



  • The Papacy suddenly realizes the full extent of Florence's greed. They issue a dire warning to the Florentines: If they lift a finger against Milan or Venice, the pope will excommunicate them. Nay, if they launch invasions to annex the nations of their fellow Italians and Catholic brothers, the pope may call a Crusade for all of Christendom to strike Florence down.
  • The Empire of Trebizond marches on its east, annexing enough territory to establish a minor outpost on the Caspian Sea.
  • France lands colonists on the Northern African coast, declaring it a territory of France.
  • Myscovy continues advancing to the other states in the north, and still avoids war with Novgorod.
  • Aragon pledges its support to the Papal States, and issues a harshly worded ultimatum to France warning against further expansion in North Africa.
  • The Kalmar Union builds several large colonies in Greenland, and sends several ships to explore the Greenlandic Coast.
  • Castile does not pledge its support to the Pope and, in fact, issues an alliance to Florence.
  • Florence accepts the Castilian alliance. However, they agree to take their ultimatums back. Changing to colonization policies, they send a squadron of ships towards central Africa. They also land a few forces in Damietta, Egypt. Finally, Florence offers an extension of the alliance to France.
  • Portugal completes its conquest of the Hafsids. Due to rising tensions over religion in the newly conquered lands, Portugal allows Sufis and Shi'ites to worship openly, and allows the Sunnis to worship in their homes. Due to the large amount of income brought in through dominance of the Black Sea trade, taxes are reduced for all. Contingents of Portuguese troops establish full control over Cape Verde, Dakar, and the western one-third of the Gambia. Locals are given the same rights as Portuguese are, and, grateful for the amount of wealth brought by trade and commerce, are quite loyal to the new power.
  • English troops complete the conquest of Ireland. Irish are allowed to speak Gaelic (unlike OTL) and are given much the same rights as Englishmen. Still, some communities (mainly in Northern Ireland) are deported to a new charter colony set up on Sherbro Island.
  • The Mamluk Sultanate, observing all other nations get more powerful, decides to expands its borders. It sends an army to capture Jerusalem, and soon, its borders touch the ottomans. Firearms are introduced to the Mamluks by the Ottomans, and the Egyptian army is modernized, and a navy is built. The began trading with the Ottomans.



  • The Kalmar Union begins construction on several new ships, to be used patrol and explore waters to the west of Greenland. they are of a new design, similar to the OTL barque, and can travel much faster than the average vessel. in addition, the King of the Union sends an expedition to try to find the "Vinland", mentioned in the Icelandic Sagas.
  • English settlers arrive on the coast of what is otl Liberia and Sierra Leone, colonizing the area. An expedition led by Flemish mercenaries take control of the inland areas, and King Henry's third son John establishes Johnstown (OTL Freetown) on the coast. His father appoints him Prince of Africa, and is instructed to carry out colonization of the continent by any means necessary. He is a quite lenient ruler, though.
  • Portuguese troops build a series of coastal forts on the coast of Tunisia, to prevent any aggression by other powers looking for control of the region. Struck by a fervent wave of piety, Alfonso V gives the city of Sfax and the island of Qarqanna to the Pope. He also sends troops in to take control of the Ashanti tribal kingdoms in OTL Ghana, holding the king hostage and taking control of various small ports on the coast.
  • The Papacy dispatches the Knights of the Vatican from Rhodes with a fleet to land in Libya and establish an outpost there. They try to interest other European powers in joining in on a Crusade against the Egyptians by promising any territory annexed in the name of the Papal States will allow merchants from any Catholic European country to trade there freely, like an international business zone reserved for Christendom.
  • The Empire of Trebizond thoroughly explores the Caspian Sea, making contact with the Asian peoples on the other side. They also dispatch an army to seize all remaining lands north of Trebizond in Asia. The empire now borders Europe.
  • Aragon captures Annaba, and expands its holdings around Oran and Melilla. Seeking to further enforce its influence in North Africa, Aragon agrees to join any Crusade launched against Egypt. Meanwhile, the explorer they sent out establishes colonies in OTL Bissau, Conakry, and Abidjan (Bixau, Altrabanda, and Tallar Fulles)
  • France continues its growth by invading the Belgian Lowlands.
  • Muscovy, having taken the north and south, moves their forces to the east.
  • The Ottomans capture Cyprus and march east and capture a large portion of Persia. The Turks then propose a military alliance with the Mamluks in exchange for Judea.



  • The Kalmar expedition lands in OTL Labrador, as well a Newfoundland. A settlement is built on the Labrador Coast, as well as one on Newfoundland. the Labrador colony becomes fairly profitable by shipping lumber to the larger colonies in Greenland, and the Newfoundland colony makes great profits exporting fish to the Kalmar Union. in addition, the new barques laid down in Scandinavia begin their first cruises, mostly by transporting more colonists to the North American colonies.
  • The Florentines land settlers on OTL Nigeria, Ivory Coast and Gold Coast, settling colonies there. Also, Cosimo de' Medici is replaced by Piero de' Medici as leader of Florence. Explorers start exploring the Atlantic Sea to find new lands and a route to India further west. Finally, the Florentines land an army in Alexandria and take it.
  • The Ottomans capture the rest of Persia. Becoming wary of the Papal States and other crusading states, they build a series of forts on its borders and builds up its army and navy. They create a new kind of ship called a Savas Gemisi or Warship. ( about the size of an OTL brig). It can hold 10-18 cannons and is made of tough but flexible Lebanese cedar. They build over 200 of the ships.
  • France continues its advance into the Lowlands as it invades OTL the Netherlands.
  • Muscovy continues its advance to the east.
  • The Empire of Trebizond takes all the remaining territories around the southern Caspian Sea.
  • The Pope proclaims a Crusade to free North Africa from anti-Christian rulers. His first target in mind is the neighboring stretch of Libyan coastline next to Portuguese Tunis. Meanwhile, he directs Aragon and any other European powers interested in Crusading to land troops in Egypt and hopefully, march on Cairo.
  • Aragon lands armies in Banghazi and Tobruk, technically following the Pope's orders but also showing that they have designs on Libya. The King decides exploration is a top priority and offers funds and support to any explorer with a feasible plan, provided that they are willing to claim any lands they find in the name of Aragon.
  • The Mamluks, worried about the Crusaders, sends an army of 70,000 to capture their military base in Libya. Meanwhile, they claim much of the remaining Arabian Peninsula.
  • Florence offers a truce to the Mamluks: They will keep their conquered land and in change the Mamluks will be protected by the Florentine army. The Mamluks agree to the truce with Florence.
  • Portugal continues to fortify it's holdings in Tunisia, and also consolidates its control over the Ashanti. Alfonso make defense of their North African holdings a top priority, and begins the construction of a new fleet to keep trade corridors to the Black Sea open and free from Muslim incursions.



  • With the Mamluks bearing down on Libya, the Pope collects volunteers from all over Europe and hires an army of professional mercenaries to garrison the strongholds he holds there. He also warns the king of Aragon to send armies to Libya if he wants to keep his holdings there. Meanwhile, the Papacy claims all of a western North African coastline between Tunisia and the Mamluk Sultanate for the States of the Church.
  • The Empire of Trebizond pushes north and succeeds in capturing all of Crimea and some of the surrounding Russian territory.
  • The Ottomans march east to take more land in Persian area, continuing to offer a military alliance to the Mamluks in exchange for most of Judea.
  • An English fleet lands at Nova Scotia, and many Irish, Scottish, and African families are deported there (as well as many criminals). Anticosti Island is turned in to a penal colony.
  • The Portuguese offer the Mamluks and Ottomans a deal. The Portuguese will not attempt any act of aggression on the two nations (unless they themselves are attacked), even if the Pope gives the order. The Portuguese also will not attempt to take any more land (in North Africa). In return, the Muslims will not interfere in any way with Portuguese shipping and trade, and will not carry out acts of aggression on Portuguese Tunisia. Portuguese troops also continue to explore Africa, and their colonies on the Gold Coast are expanded.
  • A Scandinavian warship exploring the East Coast of North America comes across the English colony in Nova Scotia. A few volleys of the warships' cannons convinces the small English garrison that surrender is almost certainly the best option. The colony is annexed into the union, and a large number of Norse immigrants are landed in the surrounding area. The Labrador colony is expanded, and several dry docks are built in Newfoundland. The Kalmar Union begins to expand its navy in preparation for the expected war with England. They also begin to sell weapons to the Scots.
  • England, hearing of the attack, moves it's entire standing army into it's colonies and expels the Norse. Portugal also sends much of it's navy to defend Nova Scotia, hoping to use it in the near future as a friendly staging point for colonies of their own. Neither nation declares war on the Union, however.
  • Aragon begins preparations to send armies back to Cyrenaica, and asks the Pope to use his army to distract the Egyptians while Aragon reclaims its bases. An explorer lands in OTL Puerto Rico and claims it for Aragon.
  • The Mamluk Sultan accepts the Portuguese deal, and also begins sending trading ships to Portugal to trade with them. They start colonizing Sudan, and draft many of the Natives to join the Mamluk army. Sudanese goods were rarely seen in Europe, so the Egyptians get rich off selling these new exotic goods to Portugal, Florence, and the Ottomans. The Mamluks also agree to the Turks' alliance and cede them Judea. The Mamluk Sultan, angered by the Papal States claiming so much land in North Africa and attacking Egyptian lands, tells the Pope that he must stop the violence between their people, or prepare for total war.



  • The pope responds to the Mamluks that he will never stop waging God's war for Christendom until the Crusaders regain what was once rightfully theirs and the Muslims stop threatening important elements of Christendom. His small, but highly trained army then moves quickly across the Libyan coast, avoiding direct conflict with the Egyptians but harassing supply lines. The Papal forces also receive reinforcements from the Swiss Guard, the pope's own elite bodyguards who are among some of the most renowned and bravest soldiers in Christendom.
  • The Empire of Trebizond annexes a little more Russian territory. They also push east, around the coast of the Caspian Sea. The emperor sends an envoy to the Ottoman Empire, reminding the sultan he is rich off the Silk Road and through monopolizing trade on the Caspian and Black Seas. He asks the sultan to name his price for the magnificent new ship designs that the Turks have developed. In return, he will allow Turkish traders to do business on the Caspian Sea, which will open up a great new revenue of trade and wealth for the Ottomans.
  • The Papal army in Libya is ambushed by a Mamluk army almost 5 times its size. Though they take heavy losses, the Mamluks win the battle. The Papal States' military was decimated, the only survivors were 7 members of the Swiss Guard. With only the local garrison defending the remaining Papal forts, the Egyptians lay siege to the bases, and the Sultan sends a message to the Pope saying that he will let the people leave or stay, which ever one they wish, if they surrender the forts to them. If not, when the Mamluks capture the bases, they will slaughter everyone there. Also, with their new wealth from Sudan lets the Mamluks build of huge fleet of 250 ships. 180 of these ships are large ships with 12 cannons, the other 70 are smaller, sleeker vessels that are meant to explore new lands and trade with other nations.
  • England reinforces it's fortifications in the New World, and befriends two tribes known as the Mohawks and the Huron. The English also begin settlement of a great fishing ground, called Powhatan Bay (OTL Chesapeake Bay).
  • Muscovy resumes its advance south, and by the end of the year, reaches the Black Sea.
  • France finishes conquering the lowlands and decides to expand its African colony.
  • Venice, a nation who has been relatively quiet at the time, suddenly starts sending out ships to invade and capture Sicily. They also start creating a large army and begin trading with Florence.
  • The Ottoman Sultan accepts the Empire of Trebizond's offer and gives them the designs for the ship, in exchange for promising no intervention in any crusades and and the lower area of their territory near the Caspian sea. The ottomans also take the isthmus that Constanitinople is on (uniting the empire with the exception of the city itself). Experiencing some problems with the Christian citizens in the acquired land, the Ottomans vow not to persecute them and allows Greek pilgrims to travel to the Holy Land if they wish. This calms them.
  • England subcontract it's close ally Portugal to found a colony to serve as a possible new homeland for the Byzantines. The island of Malabo and the nearby mainland is quickly secured by colonial troops, and many Greeks living in Constantinople immigrate to the island, as do some Portuguese. At the same time, many of the nobility of England and Portugal, as well as some of the surrounding nations, begin entertaining the fanciful idea of returning the Byzantine Empire to it's former glory. Preachers begin denouncing the Turks and their invasion of Anatolia and Greece, and the public begins to be quite whipped up.



  • The Empire of Trebizond turns over their southern Caspian territories to the Turks and officially removes their military forces. Now armed with the designs that have made the Ottoman navy so dominant over the eastern Mediterranean, the Trapezuntine Greeks set to work building up Trebizond's navy to rule the Black and Caspian Seas.
  • The Papacy gathers together the largest armies ever amassed by the Papal States on its own. The massive fighting force comprises mainly of Catholic soldiers and crossbowmen from Austria, Spain, Ireland, and Switzerland. However, the Crusading Orders of the Knights of the Vatican, the Knights of St. John, and their men-at-arms also make up a portion of the force, along with Papal military regulars and mercenary musketeers. The bulk of the army amasses in Rome by February, and the entire force has landed in Libya by June. The pope also hires Giovanni Giustiniani, a famous military tactician renowned for his skills in defending walled cities, to go to the Libyan strongholds and supervise the war against the Mamluks.
  • The Ottomans take all the unclaimed land in the Arabian peninsula, and they prepare the military for possible trouble with the Crusaders. Hearing of the riches found in the new world, the Sultan sends a fleet to explore and found a colony by going around the horn of Africa but their ships, not strong enough to make the full trip instead land in OTL Somalia, where they found a colony called Guney Anadolu or South Anatolia, and start fixing the ships.
  • The emperor of Byzantium asks England to help them establish a colony in West Africa. He also asks for an alliance against the Ottomans.
  • Reinforced with a dozen "new model" topsail schooners, carrying around 40 guns apiece, the Kalmar Union's Navy again demands that the English withdraw from Nova Scotia. the navies preparing to battle are of approximately equal size, but the Kalmar ships carry almost three times as much firepower, ensuring that any naval engagement will be short, bloody and decisive. With most of their army facing starvation in the newly founded colony, the English colony's fate looks grim.
  • The Florentine ships on Africa (Gold Coast, Cotta d' Avoiro and Nigeria colonies) that were exploring the Atlantic Ocean discover a new land in OTL Venezuela (named New Italy after it's beauty) and start a colony there. The Florentine government sends approximately half of the ex-Genoan army, led by the Florentine flagship, the Lorenzo de' Medici (named after Piero's second son and the one he designed as the heir) to explore, half of it to the east of Africa to find India and the other to continue exploring this newly-found continent. Florence also offers the Venetians an alliance. Finally, Florence also offer an alliance to the Kalmar Union.
  • Castilian ships start exploring North America and discover a rich land. This land is named New Cordoba (OTL New York).
  • Muscovy continues a large advance to the east, capturing much lands from the natives.
  • France established another African colony on the western African coast.
  • England makes the best of it's current situation and torches it's own colonies as the refugees and the army are taken by their Mohawk allies and guided to their smaller colony at Powhatan Bay. The Portuguese and English fleets escape by cover of darkness; the Portuguese return to Gibraltar, while the English fleet flees to Powhatan Bay. A steady trade with the natives has developed a tentative friendship with them. Several forts are built at the mouth of the bay, while tribal conscripts from Africa reinforce the standing army.
  • The Mamluks officially remove their forces from Judea.



  • The Empire of Trebizond begins establishing outposts on the Eastern side of the Caspian Sea and around the northern coasts. The emperor also offers to grant Muscovy trade rights in the Black and newly explored Caspian Seas if the Muscovians will grant Trebizond a narrow strip of coastal territory so that the empire can be unified.
  • The large Papal army in Libya shows indescribable brutality to their Egyptian enemies when they ambush a campsite and massacre nearly a thousand Mamluks. The pope swears this Crusade is a holy war--no quarter will be asked and none given. Meanwhile, the tactician Giovanni Giustiniani constructs a series of new castles for the Papacy along the Libyan coast. These are supplied by their own wells and the largest fortress holds enough supplies to last a four year siege. He christens the largest castle Fort Pious, and designs it with a four layer ringwall system, spiked with cannon and fortifications.
  • England expands its professional navy, adding newly designed sloops and the schooners designed by the KU. Relations with native peoples are improved considerably, and they manage to establish an actual alliance with the Mohawks and Huron. Relations with the native tribes loosely termed Powhatan are improved as well, with many joining the army in return for being allowed to keep their weapons and armor at the end of their tenure. African colonies are consolidated, and the settlements are reorganized into the Dominion of Africa.
  • Portugal continues to expand their settlements in Africa. A standing army of conscripted natives is established, and this allows them to move through and take territory without being impeded by terrain or cultural differences. Portuguese traders also expand their networks of commerce into the Black Sea, easily making them one of the richest kingdoms of Western Europe. They also formally cede control of the Byzantine African colony to a Greek colonial government.
  • Muscovy agrees to the Trebizond's proposition and continue an advance to the southeast.
  • France establishes a colony in western Hispaniola.
  • England offers France a pact of non-aggression, and a royal marriage. They also expand control over America, taking much of OTL Virginia, Maryland and Delaware. France agrees.
  • Portugal expands control over it's Black Sea possessions, taking much of the Moldovan coastline.
  • The Ottomans, citing the problems with the Savas Gemisi and develop a new ship called the Sermaye Gemi or capital ship. ( about the size of OTL British ship-of-the-line) and can hold from 74 to 80 cannon, hold massive amounts of supplies and is durable enough to withstand the strength of the wild Atlantic Ocean. They produce over 250 of these ships and add them to their Mediterranean sea fleets, Indian Ocean fleets and the South Anatolia fleets.
  • The Kalmar Union offers Britain a treaty, in which both nations agree not to attack the others colonies, and divide the East Coast along the St. Lawrence river, with the recently discovered Great Lakes region going to Scandinavia, and everything south and east of that area going to Britain. Scandinavia expresses a desire for the territory west of the Mississippi, and offer to allow Britain to colonize Cuba and Hispaniola unmolested in exchange. they also construct a colony on the mouth of the Mississippi, with thousands of Norse settlers arriving every month, to take advantage of the fertile farmland of the west bank of the Mississippi.



  • The Empire of Trebizond continues to expand its dominions over the Eastern coast of the Caspian Sea, and makes some minor territorial gains in southern Russia. The emperor also asks the Ottoman Turks for maritime access to the Mediterranean Sea, since he has allowed them access to the Caspian Sea and feels it is only right that they grant him this favor.
  • The Pope organizes the Papal North African territories into the Dominatio Pontificia Africa, domains of the Roman Catholic church and an international business territory for all Catholic nations. He also expresses interest in the new lands being discovered to the south and the west. Convinced that the church needs a new outpost by which it can conduct missionary activities to the Indies, the pope sends a tiny Papal fleet into the Atlantic Ocean to begin explorations.
  • The Castilian colony, New Cordoba, expands west and South-west. Castilians also establish a colony on OTL Angola.
  • Florentine settlers expand further west, reaching all of the coast of Venezuela and OTL La Guajira, Colombia. Also, Piero I de' Medici is killed, and Lorenzo de' Medici ascends to power.
  • France expands its Hispaniolan colony.
  • Muscovy asks Poland-Lithuania for an alliance and offer giving Poland-Lithuania some of Muscovy's border land. Muscovy also expands more to the southeast.
  • The Ottoman Sultan agrees to the Empire of Trebizond's request and give them access to the Mediterranean Sea out of good faith. The Ottomans also found a new colony in OTL South Africa. They also send a colonization fleet consisting of some of the new ships from South Antatolia to the new world to form a colony. They land in OTL Brazil near OTL Sao Luis and name the land Buyuk Orman or big forest and name the colony Yeni Ankara or new Ankara. Immediately after setting up and securing the colony, the colonists start exporting resources. They exported lumber, exotic animals, fruit, coffee, chocolate, among other resources.
  • England partially agrees to the KU's request; however, they do not accept the clause giving the KU rights to lands west of the Mississippi. An expedition by British sailors has shown promising lands on the far side of the continent, and a colonisation mission is set there. Landing at New Plymouth (Seattle), they quickly gain control of the surrounding area and become allies with a certain tribe known as the Ne Me Poo (Nez Pierce). Through the usage of more advanced iron weapons then they had previously had, they quickly secure The Dalles, as well as most of the Columbia River Plateau tribes, such as the Paiute and Cayuse.
  • Byzantine Africa continues to expand its control of the continent. Many Albanian immigrants (as well as some from Trebizond) bolster the ranks of the Greek colonists, and the coastline to the south is colonized (south to the southern border of Gabon).
  • Portugal founds a colony at Noa Lisboa (Galveston, TX). The valuable ranch lands inland are settled primarily by nobles and retired merchants, while the coastal areas are settled by Basques and Englishmen; most of them having a background in fishing (due to the valuable and exotic seafood found in the Gulf).



  • The Papal Atlantic fleet lands in OTL eastern Florida. The Papal sailors realize they have in fact landed in a new world, instead of the Indies, as the pope was informed back in Europe. They quickly declare the land property of the church and establish a small fort. When the pope receives word that the Indies must be further west, he orders another fleet to go into the Caribbean Sea and find a route through the new world and to Asia. Meanwhile, he also sends a number of Catholic missionaries to bring the religion to the native peoples in the Florida regions.
  • The Empire of Trebizond continues to expand along the northern coast of the Caspian Sea. Their territory further and further east around the Caspian is linked by a military road guarded by a chain of garrisoned fortresses commissioned by the emperor, who hopes to find a new trade route to the nomad peoples of Central Asia. He also dispatches two fleets to sail through the Mediterranean and, hopefully, set up trade outposts in the new lands being discovered to the west.
  • France massively expands its Hispaniolan colony, now controlling almost all of the island.
  • Muscovy, launches an invasion of Novgorod, mainly pushing a large part of its forces in the west.
  • British settlers begin arriving in full force in New Plymouth (mainly settling along the coast). Word spreads about a large and incredibly fertile valley to the south, and several expeditions arrive to take advantage of this. They also offer to sell their smaller African colony to Trebizond in exchange for the same deal that Portugal had struck with them concerning trade rights.
  • Portugal expands it's African colonies considerably, using the vast amount of wealth that the eastern trade has brought in. A colony is established in the Comoros Islands, while another trading post is established on the far-flung isle of Diego Garcia; allowing them to tap in to the wealth of the various Indian kingdoms.
  • Florence expands it's African and American colonies. They also establish a colony on OTL Southern Florida, and another one on Nuova Genoa (Houston, TX). The Italian colony on OTL northern South America also expands considerably, and the Italians found a new city for the land: Nuova Firenze (OTL Medellín). Finally, the Italians also conquer Zanzibar and settle a colony on Cuba.
  • The Ottomans eastern borders expand to India, the South Anatolia colony expands some more and Buyuk Orman expands more around and down the Dev Yilan Nehir or big snake river (OTL Amazon River).
  • The Mamluks, realizing this new crusader army is a major problem, and the sultan calls for Jihad. A huge Mamluk army is assembled. The leader of the Army, Amar Hakim, also begin recruiting several religious fanatics willing to join the army. The Mamluks start sending out raiding parties, who begin attacking Crusader camps, and in one incident, they burn down a fort that the Crusader army was depending on for supplies. They also establish a trading port and base in Diu, India.
  • The Poland-Lithuania Commonwealth sends six boats on a journey to explore the unknown world. The ships travel west through the Baltic and North Seas.
  • Scotland begins the 'Great Project'. Losing the Lowlands to England has caused an enormous downturn in the economy and Scotland is losing cash, fast. In fact the situation is so bad, hundreds if not thousands of Scots are fleeing to wealthier countries like France, England, Netherlands or Scandinavia or even fleeing overseas. The King commissions the 'Colonial Company'. The Company's job is to re-establish cash flow to Scotland by any means necessary.



  • The Empire of Trebizond expands south around the Caspian Sea. The Trapezuntine Greeks also begin to send their armies further to the east. Meanwhile, the emperor informs the English he is sorry, but he must currently turn down their request for trade rights. He is rich enough now he can afford to, and does not want the English to hold him responsible if their ships are attacked by raiders in the fairly lawless areas of the Caspian Sea. He also feels that the Caspian is not quite ready for more Western European influences or encroachments. The same year, the ships sent out by Trebizond from the Mediterranean reach the southern coastline of OTL Western Sahara. A colony is not established, but instead a trading post for future business purposes.
  • The Papal commanders laugh at the Mamluk attempt to destroy one of their forts containing supplies. As the Papacy's Libyan territory encompasses a stretch of coastline and their supply routes are defended by the chain of medieval-style strongholds supervised by Giovanni Giustiniani, the famous Florentine defense tactician, they feel relatively safe. The Crusader army also never spends time in one place for long but is constantly on the move and seeking cover in their castles. They also avoid venturing further inland for fear of being ambushed by the Mamluks.
  • The Ottomans expand their South Anatolian colony, Buyuk Orman colony and their eastern borders creep into western India and move north a little into OTL Pakistan and Afghanistan. From their exposure to India the Ottomans incorporate elephants into the army. Worrying about the crusaders, the Ottomans bolster their borders with troops, especially around their Judean and European borders.
  • France now completely controls the entirety of of Hispaniola and declares it the French Colony of Haiti.
  • Muscovy expands deep into the Novgorod territory and now controls some of their coastal territory.
  • The Florentine colony expands further into Colombia, Cuba and Central America, and also settle down colonies on Jamaica and south Brazil. They also conquer a part of Ceylon since the port of Zanzibar, and also offer an alliance to the Ottomans. Finally, they conquer most coast Mayan cities, and add Yucatec to the list of regionally recognized languages.
  • Castilians land on OTL Namibia and settle down on it. Also, their North American colony expands all the way to the British borders of their colony and also into the Kalmar outposts.
  • The Kalmar union now controls all of Northeast Canada, the St. Lawrence seaway, and the northern Mississippi River. They begin sending settlers into the mid west, and begin sending ships further south in search of new colonies. Kalmar merchants greatly expand their shipyards in Scandinavia, and in Newfoundland, which is quickly becoming a trade center in North America. Thanks to their control of the Scandinavian forests, and the taiga forests of North America, Scandinavia dominates the shipbuilding trade.



  • The Empire of Trebizond continues its expansion eastward. Their armies clash with a number of Asiatic nomadic tribes, but these are easily crushed with a show of force. One such tribe is in possession of elephants. The Trapezuntine Greeks are undaunted by the animals and throw them into panic with concentrated artillery fire. They also hurl Greek Fire bombs onto the remaining elephants, causing them to run amok and trample their own troops.
  • The Papal sailors sent to discover a seaway to Asia finds the Maya people instead. They establish a mission outpost on the Mayan coast with the purpose of sending priests there to minister to the natives. Meanwhile, the pope tells the leaders of Florence that while it is perfectly fine for them to present a neutral view to the Muslims or conduct business with them, it is not fine for them to enter into an alliance with them. The pope warns he will excommunicate the Florentines, disillusion their Catholic population, and call a Crusade on them if they have an alliance with the Turks.
  • England expands both colonies, with the eastern one taking up much of the southern coast, and the western colony having absorbed more territory. Settlement continues into British Columbia.
  • France settles the island of Madagascar, both in the south and in the north.
  • Muscovy makes huge advances into Novgorod territory, taking much of their eastern lands.
  • The Ottomans expand their colonies some more, march north in the east. The Sultan asks the Florentines if they want to go through with the alliance, if they still want to, the Turks will accept the alliance and offer as much help as needed. The Ottoman Empire also joins in the Mamluk Jihad and send an army of over 50,000 soldiers, elephants, cavalry and cannon to Libya and start ransacking each crusader fortress until they find the crusader army (they are careful not to harm civilians, unless provoked by violence). Meanwhile, the powerful Mediterranean fleets attack crusader ships and blockade ports.
  • The Florentines expand west into Colombia and Central America, and build a port there, called Santo Sebastián de' Chibcha (OTL Cali) and from there they explore north and settle a colony in "Santo Giovanni" (OTL San Francisco). They also tell the Ottomans that they will have to stop the alliance proposal, as the Pope has already threatened them with excommunication and a crusade against them. Finally, they start to explore east and southeast from the Colonia de' Ceilon (OTL southern Sri Lanka).
  • The Mamluk Jihad Army begins to hire pirates to raid the Papacy's ships off the coast, but the pirates also attack trade caravans on the beaches and desert as well. By the end of the year, almost 500 Papal State merchants and soldiers are captured and beheaded by the pirates. The Sultan also expands his empire in India, his soldiers capture Goa in the south. War Elephants are added to the Mamluk armies, and the Mamluks keep a iron grip on their lands in India, by shipping almost 30,000 men to their Indian territories. The Mamluk Sultan asks the Ottomans if the Mamluk Navy can have the designs for the newest Ottoman kind of warship, and if so, the Egyptians will start trading their new exotic Indian goods with them. Also, the Mamluks Sultan promises that he will fund the Ottoman Jihad army and give them supplies for their lands in the Arabian Peninsula.



  • The Crusader army in Libya ambushes the Mamluk-hired raiders while they try to attack a supply caravan on the coast. The raiders are slaughtered to a man and the Crusaders capture all of their horses. However, the knights and their men-at-arms are furious with their gains as the horses are swift mares that cannot make good war stallions. The raiders' bones are left to bleach in the sun as a warning to future banditry and the Papal forces instead coat the captured horses in a flammable paper substance and set them ablaze before driving them loose on the Turkish camp. The product is chaos, as the Ottomans' Indian elephants are panicked by the burning horses and flee through the camp, killing many Turkish soldiers and running off into the desert.
  • The Empire of Trebizond makes massive territorial gains by directly annexing many of the Central Asian tribes to their east. To garrison the captured territory, Trebizond utilizes local Asiatic troops. Many Asiatics are attracted by the promises of military pension and booty, and still others are induced by conscription and draft. This greatly boosts the numbers of the imperial army as many of the new recruits' iron hardiness and experience on the steppes allows them to adopt Greek discipline very well. Most of the Asiatic soldiers are also taught to use firearms and man artillery pieces.
  • Muscovy continues its invasion of Novgorod by moving its troops more to the north and to the west and begin putting troops onto the Scandinavian peninsula.
  • France expands its colonies on Madagascar to include many parts of the north and south of the island.
  • The Mamluks, surprised at their raiders defeat, uses a new strategy. Wherever the Crusading Army goes, the Mamluks burn the farmlands around them. They also poison the rivers the Crusaders use, and after four months of this, the Mamluks go in for the kill. They attack at night, their elite cavalry sweeping in, cutting down men left and right. Their cannons pound the panicked crusaders into the desert sand. The horse archers and hand gunners take out a countless number of knights. Finally, the elite Mamluk swordsman come in, killing even more crusaders. Naffatun is thrown onto their tents, burying them down instantly. When the sun rises, the Mamluk army pulls back, leaving almost half of the Crusader army dead. Meanwhile, the trading in India is going so well that the Sultan request's another colony built, but this time much further inland, in Delhi, the richest lands of India. The Mamluks continue to ask the Ottomans for the designs of the new kind of warship they have.
  • The Florentine colony in South America now stretches to include all of the land between Yucatan and the Inca Empire. The Florentines settle a new territory in OTL Los Angeles, and expand the North American colonies on South Florida and on Texas. They also find Malacca and conquer it.
  • The Castilians expand their colonies on Namibia and North America, the last one reaching very far west (OTL Indiana).
  • The Ottomans will accept the Mamluks offer if they cede the little strip of land between the Turkish Arabian territories and the main empire and the little bit of land left at the bottom of the peninsula (will let use for secure trading). meanwhile in the East, the empire expands more into India and up north of it, the south Anatolian colony expands some more same with the Buyuk Orman Colony. New Ankara's population has increased to over 2000 people. Meanwhile, in the jihad the Ottomans take revenge for their destroyed camp, by raiding the crusaders' largest supply depot an fortess and burn it to the ground, also following the Mamluks' scorched earth tactics.
  • The Mamluks agree to the Ottomans' offer, and the Turks grant them the ship design.



  • The Empire of Trebizond continues its expansion eastward. It also ships the first troops to its African trading zone to construct a fort to defend it from savage natives or greedy Western powers.
  • The surviving Papal forces in Libya retreat to Fort Pius, which is a huge stronghold build of solid stone. It holds enough food to last a long siege, and includes its own well for water. Four layers of thick masonry mounted with artillery pieces and stakes for extra defense are features that are improved upon. Meanwhile, the pope dispatches a new Crusader army to Libya. It lands on the northern coast, consisting of fresh Papal knights, their men-at-arms, and a number of Catholic volunteers from across Europe. Also included in the force are fearsome Catalan mercenaries, whose dogged fearlessness and savage brutality have struck terror into the hearts of many Southern European armies during the 1300's. Camps are now heavily fortified, and portions of the army always arrayed in battle order to prevent surprise night raids.
  • In a series of resounding victories, Muscovy finishes off the remainder of Novgorod forces and takes all of their remaining land, "putting down any unruly civilians."
  • France establishes a colony on northern OTL Sri Lanka, much to the chagrin of Florence.
  • Unrest in Ireland sparks a debate over unfair taxes. Protests in Ireland escalate to a massacre in Dublin. British soldiers open fire on several Irishmen. The Irish Volunteer Militia, mostly occupied in a foreign battle to save the Pope, is unable to respond to this massacre. John O'Brien starts a secret group called the Irish Congress. People dressed as Knights Templar dump tea and beer into the Dublin Bay. This event is known as The Dublin Tea Party.
  • Florence expands further on Central America, conquering several Mayan cities. It also expands the southern Californian colony until the British border and Baja California, and the Texan colony expands much too. They also start attacking the Inca Empire, and capture Túpac Yupanqi. They finally conquer Calcutta, and make a new law that states that every religion will be freely tolerated in Florentine territories.
  • The Scottish Colonial Company invests in the Irish rebels, as well as establishing a small colony in OTL New Brunswick.
  • The Aztecs begin to abduct colonists, The abductions go unnoticed.



  • Ireland secedes from England. The First Irish Congress is founded and the Irish Volunteer Militia is renamed the Irish Republican Army. Ireland wishes for peace, but they prepare to fend off an invasion. Ireland wishes for an Alliance with Scotland. Ireland also wishes for help from France, Castile, or anyone who is willing to help. The Irish Templar Order is founded. Ideas for the Irish flag are presented to John O'Brian, the leader of the Second Irish Congress.
  • Scotland agrees to an alliance with Ireland and prepare to invade England to force Ireland's independence on the English. At the same time, the Scottish Colonial Company suggests a deal with Ireland. The Company will help set up Irish colonies in return for a section of the profits. Ireland accepts. They begin to plan the attack.
  • The new Papal army in Libya pushes the Mamluks back on several fronts. They establish the newest supply depot in a castle-port along the coast, and post a large garrison of knights there to ensure that the Muslims cannot cut off their supplies as easily as before. The Knights of the Vatican also send their fleet to patrol the Libyan coast in order to discourage raiders. Meanwhile, the Papal explorers in Mayan territory expand further inland in the hopes of dispatching missionaries to reach the natives. The same also goes for the Papal representatives in Florida.
  • The Empire of Trebizond continues to make massive territorial gains on its Asiatic front. Their trade outpost in Africa spills deeper into the continent with the arrival of new Greek colonists and the first real settlement is established.
  • England allows Ireland it's independence, as it has been a great strain on resources by forcing England to keep a majority of its troops there to fend off rebellions, and has no natural resources of note.
  • With Novgorod conquered, Muscovy looks east, invading many of the smaller tribes in the east.
  • France continues to expand its Sri Lankan colony, against some threats from Florence.
  • The Aztec empire expands its borders to OTL Rio Grande.



  • The Irish Constitution is written. John O'Brian is elected the first President of Ireland. Ireland joins the Papal States in their crusade against Libya and begins to trade with Scotland and France.
  • Muscovy continues an advance towards the east and the south, bringing the a new southern border to the Empire of Trebizond near the Caucasus.
  • France expands its Sri Lankan colony to control most of the island, but after Florentine raiding parties are reported to come across the border and attack frontiersmen, France request an anti-Florentine pact from the Papal States and Venice.
  • The Florentine colony expands north and west into Central America, reaching Yucatán. The Florentines also expand the Malaccan and the Calcuttan borders. They also expand the Florentine army, which had been thought of as mighty by the Italians but in fact was small and out-dated, and also modernize it. Italian colonies in the northwest of America expand south and east (in the Californian case) and north and west (in the Texan).
  • In the few year absence the ottomans expands hugely, Buyuk Orman expands to OTL north Brazil, and South Anatolia to the southern coast and in the east almost all of OTL Afghanistan and Pakistsan is capture. The Ottoman Empire launches massive raids against the crusaders.
  • The Empire of Trebizond resumes expansion of its African colony and eastern territories. The emperor is also successful in securing an alliance with Muscovy.
  • English colonies in the Americas resume expanding (the one on the eastern seaboard expands west, while the one on the Pacific Coast expands east. The professional navy is also improved, with a naval academy at Bristol, as well as a Pacific Squadron.
  • The Papacy remains somewhat wary of Florentine expansion, but approve it as it has not involved direct military aggression against other nations. They turn down the anti-Florentine alliance with France but the two states remain close should Florence go on the offensive in Europe. Meanwhile, the Papal army retaliates against the Ottomans in Libya by attacking one of their campsites at night. The elephants and horses are driven away, and the knights set fire to the camp. Those who dare attempt to escape feel the wrath of Greek Fire bombs made by the Catalans. They leave over two hundred Turks dead before managing to retreat to Fort Pious to supply for a new campaign.
  • The Poland-Lithuania Commonwealth reaches Africa to establish a colony; it creates trading ports here which leads to an economic boom within the nation.


  • A new Italian Crusading order is founded, the Knights of Augosto. Their members are quickly sent to Libya to aid in the Crusade there and join fresh Irish reinforcements in arriving to defend Papal interests there. The Crusader army regroups with these forces and launches a renewed attack into the Libyan inland. They construct a border fort to winter and defend themselves from Muslim attacks.
  • Poland-Lithuania is begins to have sympathy for the church and is near the brink of declaring war with the Malmulk Sultanate. It also begins sending supplies to the Papal States to help support the Crusaders.
  • The IRA and Papal Forces launch a devastating assault against inland Libya, bombarding the Egyptian cities there and destroying several forts.
  • The Aztec Empire captures more of Baja Mexico and Central America.
  • The Knights of The Byzantine Order of Saint Andrew are founded in Portsmouth, England, by Greek immigrants. Many English (and particularly the Welsh) join up, and it becomes quite fashionable for weathly merchants to donate large sums on their death. No military action is taken as of yet, though many shipwrights among the order begin construction of more ships than the market is expected to need.
  • English African colonies expand inland, as do their American ones.
  • France, instead of risking war with Florence by expanding on Sri Lanka, continues to expand its colony on Madagascar
  • Muscovy continues its expansion to the east, looking for the resources they believe it will offer.
  • The Empire of Trebizond, irritated by the raids of Tartar tribes to their north, launches a vicious new campaign in order to restore peace to the empire's northern borders.



  • The largest Mamluk city of Libya is taken and held by the Crusader armies. The city is secured under a joint Papal-Irish garrison. The Knightly Orders and the IRA prevent anyone from retaking it.
  • All of Baja Mexico is taken by the Aztecs.
  • The Empire of Trebizond expands its African colony. Many citizens leave their homelands in Georgia and Pontus to seek a new living in the African lands. To encourage further colonists, the emperor offers a free tract of land to any Greek wishing to settle there. Meanwhile, all of the northern Tartar tribes are subdued by the superior Trapezuntine forces and Trebizond achieves yet another new border with Muscovy.
  • Reports continue to come in about Florentine colonists attacking French colonists in Sri Lanka, but when a French frigate is destroyed in port by two Florentine Carracks, France sees this as an intolerable act of war and invades Florence's Sri Lankan colonies while also asking for assistance from their ally, the Papal States, and also Venice.
  • Muscovy continues its expansion eastward.
  • The Republic of Florence sends the garrisons from Calcutta and Malacca to recuperate Sri Lanka. They also send the I Armata Fiorentina, composing of 50,000 strongly armed men, to invade France, while the I Naviera Fiorentina blocks Marseilles. The garrisons are able to take most of Sri Lanka back. The Italian armies on Damietta and Alexandria to land on Madagascar. The II Armata Fiorentina is sent to the south to keep the Pope in check, and the III Armata is sent north to keep the Venetians.
  • Scotland expands control of its North American holdings. The Colonial Company establishes the Dominion of Avalon as the official name for the colony. Arthurian mythos becomes popular in Scotland, with the King more an more adopting the trappings of the Arthurian monarchy, even going so far as to claim descendency from King Arthur. The Kingdom of Scotland is reorganised into the Kingdom of North Britain.


  • Libya is exterminated. John O'Brian and the Pope discuss terms of division of the new territory. Meanwhile, the Irish begin exploring the OTL Hudson Bay and set up small colonies there. They make contact with the Aztecs; Aztecs extremely hostile. Ireland sets up a small colony in OTL Louisiana to keep an eye on the Aztecs.
  • Aztecs expand eastward to East Texas. They raid praire native American tribes.
  • North Britain requests control of the Scottish Lowlands back. Colony of Artoria founded in West Africa.
  • England agrees to the NB's request, under the conditions that Edinburgh and Glasgow (and the area directly around the two cities) remain under British control. To reinforce this, England fortifies the two cities and ships in food for a siege of at least several years. England establishes its western American colony as the Dominion of New Plymouth, with a democratically-elected governor (the same goes for the eastern colony, known as Powhatan). The navy is also slightly expanded.
  • War is declared by England on Florence, in alliance with France. Colonial troops land and take the area immediately surrounding Lake Macaraibo, while a second force lands in the Oronico River Delta.
  • The Commonwealth sends two ships to set up a trading post in Central America. Due to a storm in Gulf of Mexico, they wound up in Louisiana. Never the less, the trading post is set up (no, not a colony).
  • On Europe, Florentines advance further into France, and start sieging Lyon. They advance through South-east France, and set 5000 men on the frontier with the Papal holding of Avignon. On the Americas, they send 50,000 soldiers into British California, and re-take Maracaibo and the Orinoco easily with the gigantic Florentine armies that once were on Incan territory. They block any trade from any ship embroidered with the Papal, English or French banners, and relocate every branch of any Florentine bank on the Pope's domains or on French territory, cutting much of the Papal and the French income. Lorenzo de' Medici, the Doge of Florence, declares that "There will be no tolerance to any trading with France, England or the Pope until the war ends. Until then, the Pope, the King of England and the King of France may be considered to be embargoed". Finally, Lorenzo also says "I won't accept any more humilliating orders from the Pope of Rome. May he excommulgate me!" and offers an alliance to the Mamluks and Ottomans.
  • The Ottomans agree to the florentines offer. The empire takes more land in the east and northern India, south anatolia expands and buyuk orman does also.



  • Ireland goes to war with Florence. Small Irish ships, along with privateers, throw bottles of Kerosine at the Florentine Ships. The Kerosine ignites, quickly destroying the ships. The small ships are hard to spot and hard to hit. Every day, Florentine ships are lost. Finally, there are no longer enough ships to effectively hold a blockade. French, English, and Papal ships storm out, cannons armed. The Florentine navy is quickly defeated. French and Irish soldiers retake Lyon and the surrounding area. Several other nations attack Florence from the north. Finally, several Irish Infiltrators get inside of Florence. They cause all kinds of trouble. Officials and generals are assassinated. On May 9th, 1473, the Infiltrators set fire to several key buildings in Florence. This event kills hundreds. It is known as the Great Florence Fire. Finally, on September 29th, 1473, Lorenzo de' Medici is assassinated. The Infiltrators then run to the Papal States to protect the Pope.
  • The Aztecs declare war on the Florentines. The rapidly expanding Aztec empire takes Maracaibo and slaughters platoons of Florentine armies. At Maracaibo, the survivors are sacrificed, Florentines and British prisoners alike.
  • Portugal decides to go to war with Florence. OTL French Guiana, British Guyana, and parts of Suriname are captured. Most of the navy is called up and sets up a complete blockade of Gibraltar, with 15 forts under construction along both coasts.
  • The English retake the Orinoco and parts west up to Caracas. They swiftly move along the coast and meet up with the Portuguese in Suriname. They also take back Florentine-occupied New Plymouth. King Henry reaffirms his loyalty to the Pope.
  • The Most Byzantine Order of Saint Andrew declares holy war on Florence. Several thousand knights and over 20,000 trained sergeants assist the British in taking Florentine territory in South America, while their fleet reinforces the Portuguese blockade of Gibraltar (as well as funding the construction of the forts).
  • The English propose a (temporary) alliance between themselves and the Irish, so that the two can better coordinate their forces while fighting against Florence.
  • The Papal States, still carefully avoiding direct war with Florence, thanks the Irish for breaking the stranglehold on Rome. The pope, having secured Libya, awards the Irish the entire coast east of the Aragonese outposts and leaving behind only garrison troops, withdraws the Crusading army back to Italy in case of a Florentine invasion.



  • Ireland accepts the temporary alliance between the English. Irish, English, and French soldiers launch a strike at Florence. The number of soldiers is nearly a hundred thousand.
  • The Aztecs capture more Florentine territory in the Americas. They also begin using metal weapons.
  • The Aztecs didn't count with a technology as advanced as the Florentines, and the hundred thousand Tropa Colonniale recuperate almost all territory lost to the Aztecs. In response to the sacrificing of the Florentines, the Italians massacre every Aztec and supporting Mayan in the remaining territory. Almost one hundred thousand people are burnt. Piero de' Lorenzo de' Medici, a devout Catholic, also apologizes to the Pope of Rome.
  • Some light skirmishing with the Aztecs allows an English-Portuguese army to retake control over the entire Lake Maracaibo area, with the border between the Europeans and Aztecs being close to the borders of Columbia and Venezuela. Several border forts are built along both the actual border and the periphery of settlement next to the Amazon, to prevent the Aztecs from trying to sneak around. The forts have many cannons, and the brush is cleared for several hundred yards around the fort itself, to prevent the natives from launching a sneak attack.
  • The first four forts are completed at Gibraltar. Due to increased funding, the remaining forts are expected to be finished by early 1477. The Knights of St. Andrew set up fortresses/colonies on Barbados, Trinidad and Grenada.
  • English-Portuguese forces consolidate their territory in South America. The Italian population is relatively peaceful, as they don't expect Florence to agree to the terms, and the natives are far more satisfied with the Portuguese and English as their rulers, as they weren't exactly unafraid after the Italian massacre of the Aztecs.
  • With the same Italian army that had destroyed the Aztec invasions, the Italians now re-take much of the lost territory on South America. The natives are promised no attacks into them if they don't support the Aztecs anymore, and the natives happily agree.
  • Castille, thinking that the Florentines were the victims and not the victimaries, declare war on England and Portugal. They invade much of North Portugal, and land troops in favour of the Florentines in America, taking over much of the Virginian colony. They are able to take the remaining Anglo-Portuguese fortifications, and redenzvouz with the Florentine army on OTL Cumaná, Venezuela. The Castillians start building many fortifications on the Caribbean coast so that the Anglo-Portuguese can't take it back. Finally, they send the Armada Invencible, together with the II and III Naviera Fiorentina, and defeat the British Royal Navy at the Battle of Plymouth.
  • France makes a large counteroffensive against the Florentine forces, driving them back across the Alps, by sheer number and good tactics.
  • Muscovy continues its eastern expansion, with the Muscovian emperor famously exclaiming that Muscovy will "Stretch from the Baltic in the west to the Pacific Bering in the east!"
  • The Ottoman Empire's colonies expand hugely, and the the empire expands east. In South Antatolia, diamonds are discovered and the economy explodes. In order to broker peace between waring christian nations the sultan offers the warring nations safe travel for pilgrims to and in the holy land.



  • Ireland's main American trade city is complete. Their territory is expanded around the area. They set up colonies along the Mississippi River. The Hudson Colonies expand also and are well fortified.
  • The Aztecs observe the Europeans in battle. A special force is created in their army to deal with Europeans. The Aztecs move southward, just barely touching Panama. All of Mexico and most of Central America is now under Aztec rule. This starts a Golden Age for the Aztecs. Wealh flows in, keeping the empire stable. The Aztecs declare war on Ireland.
  • The pope declares the war against Florence is over and he is withdrawing from it. The Florentines agree to pay the Papacy a huge tribute of Florins, and finance any Crusades in the future. In return, the church pleads with England and Portugal to cease hostilities with Florence or be willing to arrive at some sort of compromise with them.
  • The Empire of Trebizond, having settled down for a number of years to consolidate their holdings over the Asiatic steppe and begin generating a good trade system through their new territorial gains, resumes an expansion eastward, inspired by the success of their friends and allies in Muscovy.
  • The Florentines, thanks to Castillian support, are able to turn the tide. They re-take the last of Portuguese and English taken territory, and also start an invasion of California. They take Baja from the Mexicans and then start advancing into English Californian territory, taking over much of the southern part of it.
  • Castile finishes the series of fortifications on the Florentine coast. They also continue the invasion of the English Atlantic North American territory, taking the rest of OTL Virginia.
  • North Britain accepts England's terms to the Lowlands. North British colonies are expanded. North British explorers go north and establish a colony in the Hudsons Bay. North Britain adopts a flag combining the flags of England and Scotland.
  • Muscovy continues to advance its borders to the east.



  • Florentines, almost broke after the war, start the first war reparations with a new holy war: The final defeat of the Inca. After Cuzco is captured, the money reserves on Florentine banks soar. Soon, the Florentines are rich again, although it will take several years to re-gain the lost treasury. They also resume the explorer activities, soon reaching OTL Argentina and settling a colony they call Bonaira (OTL Buenos Aires). The settlement proyect inland continues. They also find China, settling a colony in OTL Hong Kong. Finally, Piero de' Lorenzo de' Medici dies from an unknown sickness and Lorenzo II de' Medici ascends. (this is OTL Lorenzo de' Medici). He first states that he is nothing like his grandfather, and soon he will be known with the title of Magnifico (the Magnificient, in Italian).
  • The Irish strike at the Aztecs from the East. The Aztecs fight back, but quickly fail. By December, the Aztecs have been pushed back to the Rio Grande by the Irish colonial forces.
  • The British and Portuguese offer a peace treaty to the Castillians and Florentines.
  • Florence invades the Aztec homeland. They defeat them at the Battle of Oaxaca, and soon advance further to Tenochtitlan. After the Papal orders, they exterminate most of the ethnic Aztec population on the city, leaving mostly Mayans, colonists, and Mixtecs on the territory. Most Aztec temples are converted into churchs. The Florentines are also reinforced by the army that was on Texas, which was idle since the Portuguese holdings in Texas had been conquered. The Mexico Lake Valley is soon surrounded, and tens of thousands of Aztecs are killed. Many avoid this fate by converting to Christianism, as the war was a Crusade. However, the Mayans, Toltecs and other natives are still tolerated in the territory if they help to defeat the Aztecs. Most do, afraid of the two Florentine massacres on Aztec people.
  • The peace treaty between England, Portugal, Castille, and Florence is ratified, officially ending the war. All the nations rejoice, as it has been a long and bloody conflict for all involved.
  • England cautiously resumes expansion of their American holdings. Due to the influx of English and Portuguese refugees from the now Castillian or Florencian-controlled African colonies, expansion is more than usual. King Henry; realizing that the army and navy need to be significantly reformed following the war, dedicates most of the reparations to this effort (paticularly to the navy).
  • The Aztecs concentrate on the war in the south. The war in the north continues to rage on.



  • Ireland takes over OTL Mexico, with the Aztec civilization surrendering and becoming faithful to the Catholic faith. Ireland presents Florence with a gift; Central America, a fruitful place. The Irish apologize for any wretched behavior. The Irish also tells Florence a hint; the coffee in Central America is amazing. They show them how to brew coffee. A cathedral is proposed on the borders of OTL Mexico and Florentine Central America. Ireland hopes for a lasting peace.
  • Florentines agree to the Irish proposals. It also starts getting rich, when the colonies on south America expand more and more, theoretically taking all of the South Cone until still ininhabitable Patagonia. The Bonaira colony also expands north and west. The settlements on the OTL Mexican borders of 1840 grow more and more by each day. This brings an economic boom that takes a lot of immigrants to Italy. One of these is Hans and Margherite Luther. They will soon have a son, although the woman is not pregnant yet. This son, Martine Lutero, will bring a gigantic series of reforms to the Lombard Church, that will make it the most important church in most of Italy and Germany. The Florentines also take over the rest of the Straits of Malacca and conquer the remainders of the Kingdom of Bengal. Many historians call this era the beginning of the Florentine Empire.
  • A young man by the name of Gerard Cauvin moves to New Plymouth with his family, as well as his lover, Jeane De Franc.
  • The Commonwealth is growing rich, the discovery in of precious metals in lower Africa starts a Gold Rush. Numerous trading posts along the Mississippi River continue a grow and a small colony is created in Lower Louisiana.
  • England continues to expand their holdings in the New World.
  • The Ottoman Empire's colonies expand exponentially and in the east the empire expands north and east. The Empire also founds a colony in OTL Singapore.
  • The Florentines, offended by the Ottoman colonies on Asia, demand that they are given to Florence or Florence will break the alliance with them and ask for a Crusade. Soldiers start going to the borders with the Ottomans in case of war.



  • The Ottomans worried about Florence and not wanting to give them the new colonies, amasses troops on their border, and in the disputed colonies. The South Anatolian and Buyuk Orman colonies expand more and in the east the empire expands more into India and invade and captures Nepal.
  • North Britain expands the Dominion of Avalon further, as well as settling land in South America.
  • England expands further into BC in the west, while in the east parts of Alabama and Mississippi are colonized.
  • Florence, with the support of the Papal States, issues a dire ultimatum to the Ottomans. They greatly improve their army and navy, bringing them back to pre-war times. Florence is now almost completely recovered from the war. The gold rush that the Commonwealth received on Africa made the Italians to settle a new colony on Gold Coast, and take many resources from there. At the same time, they settle a small colony in Rio de' Gennaio (OTL Rio de Janeiro) and another one at San Paolo (OTL Sao Paulo). The colonies on both Asia, Africa, and America expand every way. The South American colonies, for example, now touch each other. The Florentines also continue their Mexican border project, and are reaching the half of it. An Italian explorer, called Cristoforo Colombo, tries to go around the world, but gets stuck in the Spice Isles. He claims the colony for Florence, and later re-build the ships, and get to Malacca. Lorenzo II de' Medici also announces the re-inauguration of the parts of Florence that had been burnt on the Great Florentine fire. Fortunately, the fire had been contained in the poor side of the city and only a small part of the true cultural heritage was damaged. A new church is built there, called "Santa Maria dei Fiume Arno"; This is the second largest building in Florence, after the Santa Maria dei Fiore.
  • Mamluks expand in India, taking new territories.
  • Muscovy continues its expansion into the east.
  • France continues to expand its colony on Madagascar, now at a much faster rate from the new wealth from their war with Florence.
  • The Commonwealth discuss with Ireland the border between their Louisiana colony and Ireland's land. They propose the boundary be the Mississippi river, it would control the south side while Ireland could control the northern parts (Trading posts would be allowed to remain). They also begins there invasion of the Ottoman (North Turkey and its Bulgaria territory) by sea.
  • The Empire of Trebizond continues expansion eastward into Central Asia; their colony also begins to spill farther along the African coast as they establish more trading outposts.



  • After the calling of the Tenth Crusade, the Florentines make their move. A gigantic army lands in the Ottoman colony on America, while another lands on Ottoman South Africa. The Malaccan troops invade Singapore and the Florentine army makes small moves to land troops on the Levant.
  • The Knights of Saint Andrew and 20,000 British troops, along with a radical Christian Carib Legion raised from the islands surrounding the Knights' bases in the Caribbean land on Cyprus, taking the island for God and country. They immediately begin to fortify it and begin to turn it into a fortress-island and a base of operations for further crusades in the area.
  • The Ottoman Empire, after being attacked so suddenly, begin wishing to cease hostilities. The Turks offer to give Singapore to the Florentines and allow unrestricted acess to the holy land for Christian pilgrims. In return, they demand that their territory seized by the Crusaders be returned to them.
  • The Papacy and Florence reject the Ottomans' offer. The pope is determined to restore Jerusalem by whatever force necessary. Having secured Libya, he gathers a Papal army from North Africa and Italy. Knights of the Vatican, Knights of Augosto, their men-at-arms, the Papal fighting cardinals and clergy, 4000 of the Papal military regulars, and Crusading fanatics make up the main body of the army. Their ranks swell when reinforcements arrive in the form of militant pilgrims, the Papal artillery crews, German mercenaries, and Catholic volunteers from across Europe. Altogether, the Crusader army totals nearly 16,000 troops. Their fleet, comprised of donated ships, the Papal Navy, and the ships of the Crusading Orders land the army in English-controlled Cyprus to winter there before making a strike into Palestine.
  • The Mamluks, outraged with the Crusaders, strikes at Rhodes, beginning a siege of Rhodes. Over 70,000 Mamluks are there.
  • Large numbers of Scots begin moving overseas top the new wealthy pastures in America. The North British government aims to united the Dominion of Avalon (in Acadia) and the Dominion of Pryten (off the Hudsons Bay) by the end of the 1470s. They declare their neutrality in European affairs concerning the tenth crusade, an set about modernising their armed forces and encouraging population growth.
  • The Empire of Trebizond pushes further and further into Central Asia with new determination, while their African colony goes on to cover more and more of the rich coastline. Greeks settling here are unwilling to venture further inland due to unfriendly natives and desert wilderness.
  • Castille joins in the Crusade, sending over 40,000 men to the Mamluk African coast, conquering much of it.

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