The Exarchate of Egypt (Hellenic: Έξαρχεῖον της Αιγύπτου Éxarkheîon tēs Aigýpton, Egyptian: Θωϣπι πϵ.Kῑμιτ Thušpi pe.Kīmit) was the name of an administrative division of the Roman Empire in Egypt from 1517 until 1805, with an interruption during the French occupation of 1798 to 1801.
Egypt was reconquered by the Roman Empire in 1517, following the Spice War (1516–1517) and the absorption of Syria into the Empire in 1516. Egypt was always a difficult province for the Romans to control, due in part to the continuing power and influence of the Coptic clergy, who did not recognize emperor's religious authority but had a strong influence in the plebs. As such, Egypt remained as a Roman colonial regime until it was invaded by the French forces of Napoleon I in 1798. After the French were expelled by an alliance of British and Roman armies, the British imposed to the Romans an arbitrage (1801) that led the independence as a monarchy under the Ghabri dynasty (1805).