World in 1900

1800 – Frederick I, son of Friedrich Wilhelm and Hedwig Catharina unite Sweden and Brandenburg-Prussia into single realm.

1807 – after the last English king from Stuart dynasty, Henry IX, died, it became clear, that he declared prince Louis of Navarre his heir. New pretender was very unpopular in England, and Parliament banned this solution. English Revolution started.

1808 – English monarchy is abolished, English and Scottish republics are proclaimed, but Ireland stay loyal to the king Louis. France don’t recognize the Republic and declares war to England. French forces, except America, where English Royalists proclaimed Commonwealth of Columbia, occupy English colonies.

1809 – during the English Revolution, radical political group of so-called Levelers take power in the country. Scottish and English republics are united into Britain. Levelers government takes full control over the economy and the distribution of wealth – because Britain now under the siege. Also, it promotes the various technical innovations designed to strengthen the defenses, such as primitive submarines and stem armored ships, which used against the French fleet.

1812-1815 – Russian-Hungarian-Ottoman War. Started as Russian support for the South Slavic revolt against the Ottoman rule, it lead to the final liquidation the Turkish power in Europe – Bulgaria declares independence, while Serbia and Wallachia was annexed into Hungary, Moldavia and Silistra – into Russia, and Albania and Macedonia – into Venetia.

1816-1818 – after fatal defeat from European Powers Sultan Ottoman Sultan Mahmud was deposed. Civil war started in Turkey. To 1818, former leader of the Albanian Army, Mohammed Ali Pasha, take power in Istanbul and create Great Caliphate of the House of Osman. Now Ottoman Caliphs were only nominal heads of state and sacral Muslim leaders, and all real power was concentrated in the hands of the Grand Vizier (Mohammed Ali). New state was pan-Islamic, brutally suppressing the non-Muslim uprising.

To 1817 – war between British Republic and France de-facto come to an end (but without any treaty).

1820– new Russian-Turkish war started, after Russia declare war to the Caliphate to save rebel Armenians and Pontic Greeks from annihilation lead to annexation of Trapezund Region to Russia and Pontic Republic declares independence. During the war, Mohammed Ali moved the Caliphate capital from Istanbul to Jerusalem, which was renamed Al-Quds.

1821 – Russian armies take Constantinople. King of Russia and Lithuania Dzmitry I crowned in St. Sophia Cathedral as the Emperor of Russia and declared annexation of the city to Russia. Orthodox Patriarch of Constantinople proclaimed head of the Russian Church. This lead to unrest in Europe, especially in France, which don’t want appear of new Great Power in Eastern Mediterranean, and Hungary, afraid about their Slavic territories.

1822 – France and Hungary declares war to Russia. Denmark and Poland-Bohemia allied with Russia against Hungary. Bosporus War started.

1823 – French fleet with help of the new armored steamships takes Dardanelles. Sweden-Brandenburg declares war to Russia. King of Saxony allied with Sweden in hope to return Polish throne from the Oldenburg dynasty.

1825 – Russia was forced to peace treaty and agree to give full independence to Pont (now include Constantinople and Trapezund), Moldavia (which now is de-facto buffer state between Russia and Bulgaria) and Livonia.

1827 – death of the Emperor Dzmitry of Russia. New Emperor Mikhail III started the policy of Reconstruction, using the British methods in Economy. Russian Orthodoxal Church separated from Constantinople. Kiev Patriarchate created. Kiev also replaced Vilna as Emperor’s residence and Russian capital.

1829 – Russian-British Alliance treaty. Russia was the first European power to recognize government of the British Republic, soon followed by Sweden, Poland-Bohemia, and the HRE. Britain now is member state of the Northern Accord Alliance with Russia.

1830-s-1850-s – Gold rush in Russia – at first in Yenisei and Lena rivers , and later in American colonies, leads to the influx immigrants to these regions. Start of the tensions about the gold lands between Russian Empire and The Great Tartaria lead to colonization and partition of the Northern Asia.

1833 – British republic annexed Morocco. Start of the Scramble for Africa between Britain and France.

1848-1849 – famine in Ireland lead to peasant revolt and end of the Bourbon rule in island. Irish Union proclaimed.

1850-s – start of the Gold Rush in California.

1853-1861 – New Netherlands independence war. Dutch colonists in North America with British help secede from the Netherlands and create Union of the Nova Belgica.

1850-1871 – Civil flame in China. Radical peasant sect, the Taiping, rebels against the Qing Emperor, and, after a long war, with British help create independent Heavenly Welfare State of China – British-style republic - in the lands south of the Huang He River. This rebellion deathblow the Qing Empire - Yunnan declares independence, the Muslims of the western provinces (so-called Jungars) also formed independent tribal confederacy. Mongols now are only nominal Qing vassals. And the rump empire now only puppet of Russia.

1857 – European colonists in Northern California created independent Republic of New

Helvetia (later Republic of Astoria). 1867-1869 – First Japanese Civil War – fight between Pro-Emperor clans and Tokugawa Shogunate led to liquidation the Shogun power in Japan. Leader of the Shogunate fleet, Admiral Enomoto Takeaki, flee to Hokkaido and create with British and Tartarian help independent Republic of Ezo.

1870-1873 – German war – with British help and Russian neutrality Sweden-Brandenburg destroyed the French-Danish alliance. Oldenburg Empire falls – Bohemia goes to Hohenzollerns and Poland create independent Kingdom. HRE ended – Northern lands was annexed into Brandenburg, and southern form Southern German (or Swabian) Union with the capital in Munich.

1875 – Venetia and Hungary created Union of Hungary-Venetia.

1877-1880 – Second Japanese Civil war – Satsuma samurai clan rebel against the Emperor. With Western help it lead to the final end of Japanese independence – Kyushu island now became loose princely confederation under Columbian and Sweden protection. And the rest of empire (except Netherlands colony of Nagasaki) now only protectorate of France.

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