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European Union (Scotland says "Yes")

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European Union
Timeline: Scotland says "Yes"
OTL equivalent: European Union
Flag of Europe.svg
Motto: 
"United in diversity"
Anthem: 
"Ode to Joy" (Orchestral)
CapitalBrussels (de facto)
Largest Cities Paris and London
Official languages 24
Demonym European
Type Politico-economic union
Member states 29 States
Government International Democratic Union
 -  President of the European Commission Jean-Claude Juncker
 -  President of the European Council Donald Tusk
 -  President of the European Parliament Martin Schulz
 -  Upper house Council of the EU
 -  Lower house Parliament
Formation
 -  Treaty of Rome 1 January 1958 
 -  Treaty of Maastricht 1 November 1993 
Area
 -  Total 4,324,782 km2 
1,669,808 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 3.08
Population
 -  2015 estimate 508,191,116 
GDP (PPP) 2015 estimate
 -  Total $19.035 Trillion (1st)
 -  Per capita $37,607 (19th)
GDP (nominal) 2015 estimate
 -  Total $16.449 trillion (2nd)
 -  Per capita $32,498 (16th)
Gini (2010) 30.4 (medium) 
HDI (2011) 0.876 (Very High) (13th/25th)
Currency Euro; ten others (EUR)
Time zone UTC

UTC+1

UTC+2
The European Union is an international organisation and politico-economic bloc located in Europe, including 28 members states located primarily in Europe, covering an area of 4,247,049 km2, and an estimated population of over four million. The EU operates through a system of supranational institutions and intergovernmental-negotiated decisions by the members states, and is often seen in some ways to be a federal unit.

History

Preliminary (1945-1958)

After the second world war European integration grew more popular after the devastation of extreme nationalism. The 1948 Hague Congress was pivotal in Federal European history, and lead to the creation of both the European Movement International and the College of Europe, where Europe's future leaders would live and study together. Another step was the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952, which was declared to be "a first step in the federation of Europe".

Treaty of Rome (1957-1992)

In 1957 Belgium, France Luxembourg and West Germany signed the Treaty of Rome, which created the European Economic Community, and established a customs unions. Additionally, they also signed  the European Atomic Energy Community pact, pledging co-operation in developing nuclear energy, with both treaties coming into force in 1958.

However, throughout the 1960's, there were some tensions, with France seeking to limit supernatural power. Nevertheless, in 1967 the Merger Treaty merged the EEC, Euratom and ECSC into the European Communities.

In 1973, the Communities enlarged to include Denmark (and Greenland, though they later withdrew after a dispute over fishing rights), Ireland and the United Kingdom. Norway had negotiated to join, but Norwegian voters rejected membership in a referendum. In 1979, the first direct elections to the European Parliament were held.

Greece joined in 1981 and Portugal and Spain in 1986. The 1985 Schengen Agreement lead to the creation of Open Borders without passport controls between most member states and some non-member states. By 1986 the European Flag began to be used, and the Single European Act was signed.

With the fall of the Eastern Bloc in 1990, East Germany, now reunified with West Germany, joined the community. Indeed, further enlargement was planned to include other former communist states, as well as the Mediterranean States of Cyprus and Malta; in June 1993 the Copenhagen Criteria for candidate members to join was agreed upon.

Maastricht Treaty (1992-2014)

The European Union was formally established with the Maastricht Treaty, which came into force on 1 November 1993. In 1995 Austria, Finland and Sweden joined the EU, and in 2002, the euro replaced the national currencies in originally 12 of the member states, and now 19.

The largest expansion was in 2004, when Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia joined the EU. Romania and Bulgaria joined the EU in 2007, with Slovenia adopting the euro, followed in 2008 by Cyprus and Malta, Slovakia in 2009, Estonia in 2011, Latvia in 2014 and Lithuania in 2015. In 2009 Iceland formally applied for EU membership, but has since suspended negotiations.

On 1 December 2006, the Lisbon Treaty entered into force and many aspect of the EU, particularly the legal structure, merging the three EU pillars and creating a permanent President of the European Council, amongst others. In 2012 the EU received the Nobel Peace Prize, and in 2013 Croatia joined, becoming the 28th EU member.

European Independence Movements (2014-present)

On 19th September 2014, Scotland voted to leave the UK. While many citizens wished to stay part of the EU, it was decided, while the rUK would automatically be part of the EU as the successor of the UK, Scotland would have to re-apply. The next day, Spanish leaders voiced their concern and disappointment with the result, and their intention to block Scotland, mainly as a measure to discourage Basque and Catalan independence movement. However, the Basque and Catalonia both hailed the result and called for similar referenda.

In 2015 negotiations began between the EU and Scotland, with Spain, which recently had been experiencing internal revolt, still opposing Scottish entry. Scotland formally became independent on the 16th Match, but has yet to make a final deal with the EU.

Another blow was struck to the EU in September, when North Italy voted to leave Italy, and had no plans to join the EU. However, on the 23rd September, EU-Scottish talks finally reach common ground, with Spain backing down on the condition that Scotland does no "interfere with the internal affairs of Spain". Scotland formally adopted the Euro.

The future of the European Union was again put into question with the 2015 Partition of Belgium. Flemish nationalism lead to the creation of an independent Flanders. The Walloon rump quickly voted to join France, apart from the German Speaking Community, which joined Germany, and the Luxembourg Province, which joined Luxembourg. Brussels, the capital of the EU, was left as an essential Rump. Emergency legislation was rushed through, and Brussels was reformed as a City State, the Free City of Brussels. This brought back confidence to the EU, and proposals have been put forward for it to be directly administered by the EU, similarly to Washington D.C.

On the 17th January 2016 German Chancellor Angela Merkel warned Spain that they risked suspension from the EU unless they find a peaceful solution to the Basque and Catalan crisis. On the 19th January the Spanish Government recognizes Catalan Independence, but refuses to let go of the Basque.

Geography

The EU covers an area of 43,028,87 square kilometers, with a highest altitude of 4810.45 metres in the Graian Alps, and the lowest points at Lammefjorden in Denmark and Quidplaspolder in the Netherlands, both at seven metres below sea level. Many EU countries' landscapes, climates and economies are effected by the coastline, which is about 41,006 miles long.

Including the overseas territories of France, the EU experiences most types of climate, ranging from Arctic in North-East Europe to tropical in French Guyana. As such, any meteorological averages as a whole are meaningless.

The EU population if highly urbanised, with about 75% of inhabitants living in Urban areas.

Member States

Member State Flag Accession Population
Austria
Flag of Austria (TONK)
1995 8,511,000
Brussels
Flag of the Brussels-Capital Region

2015

originally Belgian Founder

11,203,992
Bulgaria
Flag of Bulgaria (3-2)
2007 7,245,677
Croatia
Flag of Croatia
2013 4,246,809
Cyprus
Flag of Cyprus
2004 10,398,697
Czech Republic
Flag of the Czech Republic
2004 10,398,697
Denmark
Flag of Denmark (3-2)
1973 5,621,607
Estonia
Flag of Estonia (3-2)
2004 1,315,819
Finland
Flag of Finland
1995 5,451,270
France
Flag of France
Founder 66,076,909
Germany
Flag of Germany (3-2 aspect ratio)
Founder 80,704,691
Hungary
Flag of Hungary
2004 9,877,365
Ireland
Flag of Ireland
1973 4,604,029
Italy
Flag of Italy (Myomi Republic)
Founder 61,152,978
Latvia
Flag of Latvia
2004 2,001,468
Lithuania
Flag of Lithuania 1918-1940
2004 2,943,472
Luxembourg
Flag of Luxembourg
Founder 548,680
Malta
Flag of Malta
2004 425,384
Netherlands
Flag of the Netherlands
Founder 17,082,000
Poland
Flag of Poland
2004 38,018,000
Portugal
Flag of Portugal
1986 10,427,301
Romania
Flag of Romania
2007 19,932,632
Scotland
Flag of Scotland (traditional)
2016 5,327,700
Slovakia
Flag of Slovakia
2004 5,400,598
Slovenia
Flag of Slovenia
2004 2,061,085
Spain
Flag of Spain (Without Bourbon Seal)
1986 46,507,760
Sweden
Flag of Sweden (3-2)
1995 9,644,864
United Kingdom
Flag of Great Britain without Scotland (vector)
1973 64,596,800

Economy

The EU has a single, common market across the collective territory of its members, representing around 508 million citizens. In 2014 the EU had a combined GDP of 18.64 trillion dollars, and is represented in the World Trade Organisation, as well as it's member states.

19 members also share the Euro currency, which represents 330 EU citizens.

Humanitarian Aid

The European Commission's Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection department (ECHO) provides aid to many developing countrieis, with a budget of around €900 million.

Recently, EU leaders have been discussing coordinating an aid program to Kurdistan and its war-torn areas. There are also plans to either send aid or loan to Catalonia, after much of it was damaged by law, particularly its tourist industry.

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