|Timeline||Europe 622-700||Europe 700-800|
Weakening of the Byzantine Empire
The Byzantine Empire was suffering from extensive weakening under Basileus Heraclius. The first nation to declare independence was the Coptic Empire in 663. The nation gained control of territory as far as Carthage. The remaining territory was overrun by Berber tribes. The Byzantine Empire went from a hyper-powerful state to a weak rump state in 10 years. However, in the Levant, a new nation was rising. This Syriac Empire is better covered in the Southwest Asia section.
Re-establishment of the Western Roman Empire
The new Byzantine Empire now looked to Europe to consolidate. Lombards were overrunning Italy and the Byzantines were losing their Italian territory. In an effort to consolidate their territory and keep it secure, the Exarch of Ravenna, Theodore II, was made the emperor of the recreated Western Roman Empire in 682. The empire successfully gained control over Aquitaine and thrust the Franks into disarray. The empire, stretching from Italy to Spain, was vast and powerful. However, it was beginning to separate from the Eastern Roman Empire.
Destruction of the Merovingians
The Merovingian Franks slowly began to collapse, and Roman-allied Lugdunensis declared independence. The empire slowly began to collapse. Eventually, members of the Franks themselves slowly began to break away. The Franks were forced deep into Austrasia, where they broke up.
Anglo-Saxon Invasion of Germania
The power vacuum in Germania attracted many Anglo-Saxon tribes in what is now Prydain. Raiders began to come in 687. Quickly, word spread of the power vacuum as the Anglo-Saxons began to settle (invade) the Germania region. Rapidly, the Anglo-Saxons formed the Saxon Kingdom in the region.
Rise of Prydain
Celts in Prydain realized that the Anglo-Saxons were declining in the region, opening a pathway for a resurgence in the region. Unified by Llewynn I, the Celts rapidly thrust out the Anglo-Saxons from the region. This forced more of them into Germania, which was beginning to be called Saxony. The Prydaeg king was succeeded by his weak son Llewynn II. The First Kingdom of Prydain collapsed in 699, but even during the Norse settlement of Prydain, the region remained strongly Celtic.