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Return to Europe 1430
- Cascadia, Nova Hibernia and New Scotland are given Dominion status within the British Federation, in a similar fashion to the Bohemian Dominions.
- However, in the home islands, the remainder of Scotland rebels, joining their independent brethren. Before the Federal Government can agree on sending troops or not, the United Republic of Scotland has been created, and the Irish are up in arms. England becomes prey to riots and civil disorder.
- Britannia Party wins a number of elections in Great Guyana, leading to the Britannia Party controlling politics within Great Guyana, and influencing the British Federation as a whole.
- The occupied areas of Tunez are incorporated entirely into Sicily and freedom of religion is granted.
- Estonia sells its occupied Finnish land to the Scandinavians.
- Great Guyana makes the Church of Britain the official religion of the Province of Great Guyana. Prince Harold, the Prince of Wales makes his residence in Lancaster House, New London, Great Guyana.
- The Tunez Pirates are forced to establish a land stronghold on an isolated coast of Alexandria after ceaseless naval clashes with the Knights of St. John, Adana, Damascus, and the Kingdom of Jerusalem which results in the loss of several ships.
- The Byzantine Empire reorganizes its domain into the six provinces of Thrace, Macedonia, Bithynia, Galatia, Cappadocia, and Trebizond. All minor provinces and districts are absorbed into the larger ones and legions formed specifically for the defense of each province. The new Greek legions are made up mainly of professional career soldiers in fortified camps across the provinces, with the governors arranged in strict order under the emperor and all members of the imperial ruling family.
- The British Federation forcibly crushes most of the revolts in England, but the Irish movements succeed in uniting and controlling much of central Ireland.
- The Byzantines, seeing the Italians ravaged and still suffering from the war with Sicily, decide it is time to stake their claims on the Italian mainland, now that their navy remains unchallenged in the Adriatic. Wave after wave of medieval-style assault troops storm the Italian coastal defenses on the heel of southern Italy, and an army of highly-trained artillery crews establish a landing and begin to bombard the Italian positions. To make matters worse, many of the Sicilians of southern Italy also rise up against the Kingdom of Italy.
- Italy being a member of the Hussite league, its members come to their aid against the Byzantines. Bohemia, Wurzburg, Hesse, Lithuania, Poland and Kanada declare war on the Byzantines, along with New West Venice, California, the Caribbean Commonwealth, Panama, Colombia, and the Mayan Republic providing supplies and volunteers.
- The Byzantine Empire renews its alliance with Georgia and recognizes Kurdistan's right to exist. It also gives more favorable terms to Anatolia, Adana, and the Duchy of Morea and formulates military alliances with them to combat Italian aggression should the Italians take the war to the East. The Wallach Union to the north, meanwhile, unwilling to risk attacks by such powers as Italy or Byzantium, declares their neutrality.
- The Byzantines construct a series of heavily-fortified strongholds along their southern foothold in Italy, guarded mainly by the Fort of Nova St. Romanos.
- The Kingdom of Jerusalem heavily polices its borders with the Hedjaz state and fashions military patrol districts for uniformed troopers in order to crack down on the growing threat of local brigands and Bedouin raiders.
- The Sassanid Persians formalize a peace treaty with Georgia, as the two nations have ceased fighting for several years.
- The Chinese set up a number of growing settlements in southern Mongolia.
- The Byzantines and Sicily, seeing how their forces are up against the same enemies, declare an alliance. The Byzantines also finish construction on Fort St. Nova Roma. They aim to keep strengthening the stone walls until they are twenty-five feet thick. A palisade is also erected as the outer wall and fitted with Greek fire weaponry, and numerous small cannon. The fort contains a well and a domed storage area is fitted to hold a plentiful food and ammunition supply in the case of a siege. Construction is also completed in the city of Brentesion on formidable defenses to protect the harbor there. A large force of elite Greek units also land in the area to garrison the city.
- Bohemian diplomats reach Constantinople to meet with the Byzantine emperor. They propose a peace. The Hussite League will stand down and relations with Bohemia will normalize. In exchange the Byzantines pull out of Italy and focus their conquests elsewhere. They claim that if the Emperor wants to etch his name in history he should forge his own empire, rather than attempting to repeat history.
- Hussite league forces shatter all Sicilian defenses while the Bohemian navy meeting up with the Italian Navy crushes the Sicilians. The Tunez Republic joins forces with the Hussite League to retake their capital in Sicilian held lands. By the end of the year the Sicilians have been driven to Tunis and the city is besieged, and in Sicily, the Hussite league forces have advanced on Palermo.
- Hungary, hoping to take advantage of the war with the Byzantines and reclaim some of their former empire, rejoins the Hussite league and declares war on the Byzantines.
- The Byzantine emperor refuses to discuss peace with the Bohemians, but a large number of the imperial ruling family inform the Bohemian parliament they are in support of peace and will continue talks secretly. Meanwhile, the Byzantine Empire cuts off all relations and business with the Wallach Union, seriously affecting Hungary's food dependency and forcing them to stall their war effort.
- The Byzantines perfect Fort Nova St. Romanos and continue building fortifications around their part of Italy. By the end of the year, a heavily-fortified wall has been constructed between Italian territory and the Byzantine foothold, well-garrisoned by Greek troops. With most of the Hussite League forces concentrating on Sicily, a new invasion force lands in southeastern Italy.
- The Sicilians move their government and most of their troops from Sicily to the island stronghold of Malta. Anticipating retaliation, the Sicilians dig in stubbornly and prepare to defend their impregnable fortresses to the last man.
- The British Federation, with much difficulty and suffering heavy losses, manages to suppress the Irish rebellion. Much of Ireland has been ravaged by war and the British have lost complete control over Scotland.
- The powerful Byzantine fleet of ships, armed with their Greek Fire cannons and heavy artillery turrets, sails south to help defend Sicily. They are joined by the remains of the Sicilian navy.
- Neu Habsburg issues a new proclamation barring any more settlement of their American island colony. The Habsburg government fears that too much of their French population are going to the Americas as settlers to escape direct Habsburg rule in Europe.
- Palermo falls to the Hussite-Italian forces amid one of bloodiest battles on Sicily. The Sicilians on Malta poison all the water supply on the barren island outside of their fortified walls and prepare to withstand a siege.
- The Byzantines introduce conscription in their Greek territories. With the wave of anti-Italian fervor sweeping the empire, many Greeks willingly volunteer to restore southern Italy to Byzantine hands. This new wave of Byzantine reinforcements succeed in overwhelming the grossly under-garrisoned city of Foggia. All of the Italian defenders are put to the sword and the city is leveled to the ground. The surviving citizenry are allowed to flee to the west.
- The Swiss launch a surprise attack on Italy. As the Italian army is in the south, they face resistance only from militia.
- The King of Bohemia dies, leaving no legitimate heirs. He does, however, leave ten illegitimate sons, all of whom claim the throne. Several nobles also make claims to the throne.
- Bohemian Parliament names the new King of Bohemia in accordance with Constitutional law, forcing all other claimants to renounce their claims. As Parliament controls the military and none of the claimants control any forces, this transition led to very few actual problems.
- Wurzburg and Hesse invade northern Switzerland.
- With Tunez liberated, the Sicilian troops destroyed and their ability to wage war eliminated, the Hussite League leaves a small force to bombard Malta, and focuses their forces on pushing the Byzantines from Italy.
- The massive Byzantine fleet near Malta forms a chain around the boot of southern Italy, blocking off all ports.
- The Byzantine emperor proposes an alliance with the Swiss Confederation. He also offers refuge to several pretenders to the Bohemian throne.
- The Sicilian troops in Tunez, finding retreat to Malta nearly impossible, hold the southern tip of Sicilian African territory against the Tunez Republic, putting up a valiant resistance.
- Having reinforced all of their strongholds around Foggia, the Byzantines lay waste to the entire Italian plains from Foggia to Naples, specifically avoiding all forts and cities but turning the once-fertile countryside into a desolate wasteland. They also unite their positions in Italy by capturing a long stretch of the southeastern Italian coast.
- Byzantine forces from Brindisi advance to the West, capturing the poorly defended Italian city of Potenza, which had been devastated by an earthquake over a century earlier. The garrison surrendered on the condition that they may be allowed to depart unarmed and without any possessions. As soon as they marched out, however, they were set upon by the Greeks and massacred.
- Finding their German forces lost in the cold, rugged mountains of Switzerland, Hesse and Wurzberg armies are quickly attacked by the Swiss army and ambushed constantly. Meanwhile, the local citizens take up arms to battle the invaders, who are forced to abandon much of their artillery and heavy equipment in the forced marches across the northernmost borders of the Swiss Confederation.
- The Byzantines, finding themselves facing the Hussite League forces to their north and south, launch a counteroffensive against the city of Naples, intending to do to the Italians as they had done during the Genoese capture of Constantinople. 'Constantinople' becomes a slogan for the revenge-thirsty Greeks, and Naples, already weakened by years of sieges sustained during the Italian-Sicilian wars, falls within four days. The determination of the Byzantines and the opening of the gates by their spies ensures its doom. Every fighting man and soldier is killed, and all of the city's riches and incomparable works of art are distributed evenly among the Greeks. To avoid having to occupy Naples, the conquerors raze it to the ground.
- As word of the razing of Naples reaches the Italian citizens it galvanizes the population and the Italian or Sicilian question dissipates, unifying all Italians against the Byzantines.
- The Swiss Confederation, having repulsed Hesse and Wurzberg, renews its invasion of Italy.
- Wallonia and the Netherlands settle on a more formal peace treaty as both sides have sustained heavy losses in the previous war and the Germans of Wallonia want to ensure such a thing will never happen again. Wallonia has suffered the most, with a ravaged nation and a severely depleted military force.
- The Byzantine Empire begins to see how further fighting would be needless bloodshed over what is now a desolate wasteland. With the destruction of Naples and the expulsion of almost the entire southern Italian population to central Italy, the Byzantines find themselves masters over smoking ruins and worthless, empty, territory. They propose a peace to the Italians: It will take money the Kingdom of Italy does not have to reconstruct their southern provinces. However, if they cede it to the Byzantines, a peace can be concluded on the following terms: The Byzantines will be allowed to keep and reconstruct southern Italy. The Italian-Greek borders will revert to their original boundaries under Basil II. The Italians may keep Sicily. The Sicilians will be allowed to retain Malta and what little remains of their Tunez coastline. A permanent peace will be settled between the Hussite League and Byzantium, with relations normalizing. The Greeks point out this would be a far better option than losing countless lives trying to retake the devastated southern Italy, which will take perhaps a century to recover.
- The Swiss, seeing their chances to back out before Italy turns on them (If they accept the peace with the Byzantines), offers a treaty to cease hostilities with the Hussite League if the king of Italy accepts the Greek offer.
- The Italians agree to the Byzantine peace terms. However, the Swiss Confederation refuses to withdraw from Italy, insisting they should be allowed to keep what they have conquered. From that moment on, the whole Italian army moves north to retaliate against the Swiss.
- The last of the Hussite League forces leave southern Italy, Malta, and Tunez. Most of them, mainly Bohemian soldiers, are sent on ships to northern Italy so they can help combat the Swiss army.
- The Byzantines plant the first Greek colonies on the ruins where Naples had once stood.
- The Habsburgs place restrictions on their Asian colony, as they had done with their American colony a few years earlier. Once again, this is intended so that the French population of Neu Habsburg cannot flee overseas to escape direct Habsburg rule. This causes several riots in the colony, which are easily crushed. Neu Habsburg then sends troops and several units of German mercenaries to enforce the expansion and exploration restrictions on OTL New Guinea.
- British loyalists in Scotland revolt against the United Republic of Scotland, which has been keeping a very cold, if not otherwise hostile policy against the British Federation to its south.
- The Canton of Uri is invaded by the joint Hussite-Italian army and annexed in the name of Italy. Swiss morale starts to collapse.
- Alarmed by the growth of Persian power and wealth to the East, Byzantium, Georgia and Damascus form the Eastern Alliance to combat Persia. The new defensive alliance is increasingly worried by the aggressive new shah on the Sassanid throne and the amassing of Persian armies on the Kurdistan border.
- Hoping to, for the most part stay out of the Scottish Civil War, the Hebrides, Argyll, the Ayrshires, and parts of the highlands declare independence as the Lordship of the Isles (but with the "Lord" being somewhat of a president-for-life.) They manage to call a truce with the Unionists and sign a non-aggression pact with the British Federation.
- The Swiss army traps half of the Hussite-Italian army in a valley, then ambushes them and inflicts heavy losses. The few survivors are massacred.
- Remembering the long alliance between the Swiss and themselves, the Scandinavians begin to ship surplus military equipment (as well as a few thousand armed "noncombat" observers) to the Alpine nation. They also sign a formal alliance with them (under the condition that Scandinavia will not be required to directly attack or go to war with the Hussite League upon the signing of the treaty). However, they also strongly advise the Swiss to ask for a white peace.
- When the Sassanid Empire invades Kurdistan, Georgia and the Byzantines, both who have guaranteed Kurdistan's right to exist, declare war on the Persians. Inevitably, they drag in Damascus as well. The Eastern Alliance then launches a massive assault on the Sassanid territories.
- The Scottish government annexes the Lordship of the Isles, mainly to stop the loyalist rebels from 'gaining control' of the region. The British Federation warns Scotland to withdraw from the area, and, when the Scots refuse, find this the perfect excuse to invade Scotland.
- Encouraged by their recent victories and Scandinavian support, the Swiss launch a major counterattack, reclaiming all of their lost canton territory and marching to crush weakened Italian forces around northwestern Italy.
- The nations of the German-Czech Federation who are not directly involved in the Hussite League declare their neutrality in the Italian conflict. Meanwhile, Bohemian parliament approves the chance to take the fight back to the Swiss by invading Switzerland from the east.
- Switzerland starts to lose the war again. Swiss morale starts to collapse as the Swiss are defeated by an Italian army near Milan, while the Hussites and the Bohemians start taking land again. Italian armies win morale again and advance towards Bern. Although on unfavorable conditions, they are able to advance and conquer more than one canton.
- The Sassanids collapse after the Eastern Alliance captures Ctesiphon, Damascus annexes the south, Georgia much of the east, and the Byzantines the remaining north. In addition, the Kurds take the chance to drive back Persian armies on their borders. The shah surrenders, and the Eastern Alliance replace him with a puppet ruler in return for withdrawing from Mesopotamia. The original shah requests aid from the British Federation, but, finding none, flees further east.
- Britain subdues Scottish forces in the south, bringing Unionist areas back into the fold. They then go west, to free the Lordship of the Isles. All the Western Isles rise up in rebellion and with British aid form the power base for an invasion of the Highlands. An invasion from Orcadia is prepared.
- Swiss resistance begins flaring up and the whole conflict bogs down into bloody warfare with thousands being lost on both sides, with the Swiss suffering in set piece battles but the Hussite League suffering as guerrillas cut off supply lines and destroy ammo dumps.
- The Patriot Initiative begins in the British Federation. For the first time, a standard education system is brought in and all children are taught about the history of their country. As well as this, the British learn some lessons from the Bohemians and Byzantines and start encouraging love for their country. Flags are emblazoned on classroom walls, all government buildings fly the flag and the national anthem is sung at the start and end of term.
- With some difficulty, the British Federal Government passes an act banning government encouraged racism. This means the vote is extended to people of colour. This does not stop racism by private bodies and there is civil unrest in the southern Pacific American Provinces south as the south of Cascadia, the south of New Scotland and the whole of Nova Hibernia as these areas previously kept slaves. There is a danger of full scale rebellion.
- The Byzantines take control of Illyria.
- The Aragonese and Navarran royal families are overthrown in a coup sponsors by the Asia based Kingdom of Spain. The Kingdom of Spain is re-established in Europe. They keep their alliances with the British and look to Andalusia to to bring back the glory of Spain.
- Scandinavia guarantees the independence of the Lordship of the Isles, and sends two regiments of troops and a squadron of frigates to support them.
- Bohemian forces are soon lost somewhere in the alps, and are decisively defeated by the Swiss. Meanwhile, every Italian attempt to retake lost Swiss ground is ending in failure due to the tenacious resistance of the local population, and an unfamiliarity with the terrain. Poor maps of Switzerland's mountains also contribute to the constant defeats of the Hussite League.
- The British Federation approves the current reunification of Spain, but wishing for it to be restricted and not gain power, refuse to grant the Spanish Andalusia.
- The Byzantine Empire signs a permanent peace with the Sassanid Empire's current ruling monarchy. They look forward to a new era of peace in the East now that Persia is virtually a puppet of the Eastern Alliance.
- The last of the Tunez raiding parties from years earlier lose their remaining ships in a naval battle with the Knights of St. John. When they retreat to their stronghold on the Alexandrian coast, the Crusader knights demand permission to land a small invasion force and destroy the stronghold. It is estimated that these Muslim pirates have sent over 150 ships from Byzantium, Crete, Adana, Anatolia, and the Kingdom of Jerusalem to watery graves.
- Scandinavia formally allies with the Lordship of the Isles, and begins to think about consolidating their various argeements with Muscovy, Estonia, Denmark, LoTI, and Switzerland into a single power bloc.
- Southern Italy is fully resettled by minor Greek colonies. The three most major cities rebuilt here by the Byzantines are Croton (Italian Crotone), Taras (Italian Taranto), and Bisceglie, which also serves as a small community for the few remaining Italian citizens living under the Byzantine domain.
- Seeing the writing on the wall, Scandinavia and a few of her allies (Estonia and Muscovy) agree to try to incorporate their alliance into the growing Eastern Alliance (a bit like the way that the Anatolian Alliance was semi-incorporated into the British Group in the 1700's). The LoTI and Switzerland also agree to the plan, but Denmark, not wanting any part of an alliance controlled by Calvinist and Orthodox interests, pulls out. The Baltic Alliance is formed.
- The Byzantine Empire improves its standards of military training in peacetime. Soon, thanks to the reforms, they possess the most professional and rugged fighting force in the East. The Byzantine troops would be forced to march, carrying equipment five times its normal weight, on fifty-mile hikes each day across treacherous terrain. Those who fell behind the overly swift pace would be mercilessly punished. All Byzantine soldiers are now required to wear helmets and upper body plates for close combat. They are also trained in the use of swords, as well as muskets. Only the best target shots are initiated into the army. The Greek troops are slowly but surely being transformed into highly-disciplined fighting machines.
- Scandinavia continues it's long youth training program. It is revised to include marksmanship (the obsolete quarterstaff training is taken out). Navigational training and math classes are also updated. Scandinavia also begins to experiment with various alternative means of propulsion for bullets (mainly fulminate of mercury and lead styphnate).
- The Knights of St. John, receiving no answer to their demands the previous year, land a small force in Alexandria and attack the stronghold of the Tunez pirates. The fortress crumbles under heavy artillery fire, and a brave Knight of the French League leads an assault which finally captures it. The remaining Tunez Pirates are then put to the sword.
- Scottish forces launch a major counterattack with most of their remaining troops into the British Federation. Nationalist rebels in occupied Scot territory, meanwhile, rise up against the British.
- Tired of war, the Swiss Confederation and the Hussite League agree to a peace. The Italian-Swiss borders are left as they are.
- Muscovy's Baltic Fleet is sent to aid the British (technically, the LoTI) in fighting the Scots. Several thousand Estonian and Scandinavian troops are also brought along, and secure the of Strathclyde for the Lordship.
- Britain begins shipping captured Scottish nationalist to the relatively unsettled north of New Scotland.
- Britain and the Lordship of the Isles begin pushing into the Highlands, appealing to their favoured status under the British regime before independence. The Lowlands are secured by Britain and there is much jubilation on the British side.
- The British Federation and Scandinavia sign a treaty, promising tp give certain Eastern Isles to Scandinavian in return for an alliance.
- The Freedom of Religion Act is passed by the British Federal Government, exacerbating tensions in the southern British colonies. Nova Hibernia and the south of Cascadia and New Scotland begin considering rebellion.
- Spain forges an alliance with North Africa and Algeria then begins a military build-up.
- A new British king comes to the throne, King Edward V, and he publicly proclaims his preference of liberal politics by regarding black African subjects as no better or worse than whites. Civil unrest reaches fever pitch in Nova Hibernia and the south of Cascadia and New Scotland.
- Scottish nationalism builds up in New Scotland.
- The British Federation warns the Kingdom of Spain to halt it's military reforms, as they hint at future aggressiveness and violate British restrictions on the Spanish government.
- Scandinavia declines a direct alliance with the British Federation, promising only support and arms against the common enemy of Britain and the Lordship of the Isles, Scotland.
- Scottish resistance and the agonizing work of occupying and holding territory in Scotland slows the British advance to a crawl.
- Alexandria complains to the Anatolian government that their territory was violated by the Knights of St John. The Knights respond that they were doing both nations a favor by eradicating a desperate gang of Muslim pirates.
- The Byzantines establish a minor port on the Persian gulf, with 'permission' from the Sassanid puppet ruler. The Greeks agree to share use of the port to any merchants representing other nations of the Eastern Alliance.
- Arameans and Arabs in Mesopotamia become tired of being oppressed by the Zoroastrian Sassanids on the east and the Orthodox and Catholic nations on the west. As most of the population there is either Nestorian Christian or Shi'ite Muslim, a huge revolt flairs up.
- The revolt continues and hundreds of Arameans join local militias to fight the Sassanid puppets and their true governors: The Eastern Alliance. Damascus and Georgia start trembling on their decisions of not accepting the Arameans' sovereignty and the Byzantine Empire also starts talks with the rebel leaders so that if a new state appeared in the east, it would have to join the Eastern Alliance.
- The Baltic Alliance offers full military assistance to the British in securing Scotland if the Isle of Man goes to the LoTI.
- The British agree to the Baltic proposal but ask for a year to prepare the Isle of Man for the handover.
- The United Republic of Scotland, all of their armies crushed, reluctantly offers a peace to the British Federation: The Scots will submit to the British if they are allowed to exist as an independent state. The Scots will also recognize the Lordship of the Isles, if they are allowed to keep their northern territories. Scottish relations with the Baltic Alliance will also normalize. The British Federation agrees, eager to make peace and establish full dominance over the Scots again.
- Negotiations between the Byzantines and the Mesopotamian rebels begin to stall. The emperor loses his patience and orders all-out assaults on the rebel-held towns and positions. They fight valiantly, but ill-officered and ill-disciplined as they are, succumb to the superior Byzantine forces and their heavy artillery. To prevent instability in Mesopotamia, the Greeks agree to investigate and halt all persecution of the Shi'ite and Nestorian faiths, as it violates the Byzantine policy of religious tolerance. They enforce the policy in the Sassanid Empire and force Damascus and Georgia to take similar measures.
- In order to begin relations with the United Republic of Scotland positively again, the British Federation lends a large quantity of money to their government. The Isle of Man is transferred to the Lordship of the Isles.
- Just as peace is re-established in the motherland, the Scottish nationalists in Northern New Scotland rebel, as do the anti-reform southerners, who form the Confederacy of Tejan. The Free Scots' Republic is established. However these states are militarily and economically weak, and the Loyalist population includes most of the military stationed in these areas, causing a low level resistance by the Loyalist civilians to begin.
- Because the British Federation is distracted by domestic concerns, Spain invades Andalusia and Britain does little to stop it. Portugal attempts an invasion in Spain's weaker north, but Spain's allies, North Africa and Algeria launch an invasion of Portuguese North Africa, distracting them from their campaign.
- Neu Hapsburg has to put down French nationalist uprisings in many cities, due to a rise in nationalism in France. The same goes for the Italian possessions in France.
- The British Federation decides to take on all of its problems one at a time. For the time being, they allow the rebellious American states to be as they are, since these new nations are enfeebled and highly unstable. They then focus on direct Spanish aggression by sending troops to Andalusia.
- A border dispute in Scandinavia evolves into a full-fledged war between Norway and Norgard.
- The Byzantines, not wishing to be dragged into unnecessary conflicts in Western Europe, officially dissolve the Anatolian Alliance, which has had ties to the British Federation. Anatolia and Adana see no objections in doing so, and fear the power of the Byzantine Empire. Thus, they do not protest. However, their governments quickly join the Eastern Alliance, accepting it as a worthy replacement.
- A number of British settlers who had been living in Britain-friendly Navarra, rise up against the Spanish now that they realize that the home country is at war with Spain.
- Several Greek, Russian, and Scandinavian statesmen favor a strong tie connecting the Eastern and Baltic Alliances to fight common enemies. They begin to propose the idea of a joint Eastern-Baltic Alliance.
- The Lordship of the Isles is officially renamed the Kingdom of Dal Raida (the old name for the Gael-Norse kingdom in the area before Scottish unification). Muscovian, Estonian, and Scandinavian troops previously stationed there are returned to their home countries (with the exception of several thousand Estonians, who go to help the Swiss Confederation rebuild after their war with the Hussites).
- In an act of good faith, the Orkneys are transferred from Scandinavia to Scotland.
- Scandinavia appeals to Norway and Norgard to end the pointless war they are waging.
- The British forces begin to drive the Spanish slowly but surely out of Andalusia. The British Federation vows that if they defeat the Kingdom of Spain, they will seize the Spanish overseas colonies, and make sure that Spain is utterly broken to prevent them from rising up again.
- Since most of the Spanish forces are in the south, the British rebels of Navarra cause serious unrest in northern Spain.
- The Byzantine Empire begins to work towards improving general relations with the Wallach Union alliance, Wallachia and Hungary. They also pass a new policy of toleration for Albanian Islam in the former state of Illyria. Greek military occupation of Illyria officially ends, and the small territory is absorbed into the Byzantine province of Macedonia.
- Seeing an opportunity, Scandinavia attacks Norgard (as most of their trops are to the SW, and Scandinavia has ties to the Norwegian government). Troops rapidly move into OTl Jamtland and Vasterbotten, and by years end, Scandinavia has taken all of Norgard's Swedish holdings.
- Longtime allies of Britain, the Japanese begin raiding Spanish bases in the Philippines.
- The current government of North Africa, corrupted by greed and promised land in Andalusia by the Spanish, sends a vast number of troops into southern Andalusia to betray their one-time allies, the British Federation. Their main advantage is in numbers as almost all of the British forces are in the north, allowing them to gain a foothold around the tip of southern Iberia.
- Norgard, overrun by Norway in the south and completely shattered by the far superior and numerous Scandinavian forces in the north, surrenders the last of its exhausted and broken army. Norway claims most of Southern Norgard and allow them to retain a tiny portion of their western coast as their only remaining territory. In return, Norgard's government is replaced by an appointed puppet ruler.
- The Byzantine emperor agrees to a joint Eastern-Baltic alliance. Scandinavia, the greatest military power of the north, and Byzantium, the greatest military power of the East, are finally tied in an almost invincible bond, along with their respective allies.
- Norway is officially incorporated into the Eastern-Baltic Alliance.
- Japanese raids on Spanish holdings continue. Palawan and the islands immediately surrounding it are captured.
- The Baltic Alliance begins an overhaul of their naval forces. A united "wartime fleet command" is created to co-ordinate fleet movements in the event of a major war, while the Eastern component of the B-E alliance does the same. The Scandinavians also create the first MEU (Marine Expeditionary Unit); a brigade-sized force of marines with supporting transports, gunboats, a logistics battalion, and light artillery combined into one single unit. This enables Scandinavia to better respond to situations like the War of Scottish Independence, and the ongoing situation in Navarre. It is thought that the SMC will reorganize into 12 different MEUs, as well as four amphibious divisions, two shipboard divisions, and seven light infantry brigades within the next ten years. The Army is also re-organized into 37 BCTs (Brigade Combat Teams), which is basically an MEU without naval support on a larger scale. The Byzantines begin to think about doing the same.
- The 1st MEU is dispatched to Navarre. By now, all of northwestern Spain is under rebel control (that being north of Spanish border and west and south of the Garonne, without going into France).
- The Italians crush the latest of the nationalist French revolts. Neu Habsburg also does the same. Much of the population flees to France's borders to escape retaliation. To prevent the majority of their populace from escaping, the Habsburgs hire professional troops and mercenaries from Bohemia and Germany to guard and fortify the borders. Defenses are built not to keep enemies out, but to keep the people in.
- The Kingdom of Spain retaliates against the Japanese navy by launching a sudden counterattack to drive them out of their Asian territory. Meanwhile, the British forces in Andalusia begin to suffer as they are unable to concentrate against either the Spanish in Aragon or North Africa in Granada. British forces ground to a halt and settle down to defend their occupied territory.
- Spanish forces in French Navarra launch an assault into rebel territory.
- The Byzantines follow the example of Scandinavia and begin a series of Naval reforms. Their navy, already dominant over the entire Adriatic, Aegean, Black, and eastern Mediterranean seas makes them one of the greatest naval powers of the East.
- The Confederacy of Tejan in North America becomes more and more unstable, divided, and weakened. The centralized government is subject to the governors of each province in the confederacy. A National Assembly is established, but it lacks strength and is mainly nominal. With each province's governor controlling tax rates, Tejan soon realizes it cannot have effective national defense or even good currency. The nation is soon turned into more or less a union of feudal provinces, as the government cannot protect individual property or control trade. Governors retain the right to seize property from their population and even refuse payment in the confederacy's own worthless money.
- Scandinavia and Norway commit the full force of their militaries to the Navarran rebellion. Engineers place a line of field fortifications stretching from Bayonne to Tarbes. Dal Raida also contributes several thousand troops (mainly to free up native Navarrans for combat duties).
- Muscovy declares open war on Spain. It's small Pacific fleet reinforces the Japanese, and, combined with Muscovian marines, they manage to hold on to Palawan.
- French nationalists violently overthrow the British-dominated government of France, tired of being suppressed under the heels of the British. Rather than hunting them down, however, the military joins the revolution, which calls for ending British involvement in France. Occupied with the war in Spain, the British cannot send troops to suppress the French as before. However, they promise they will if the movement grows too serious or threatens to spread to other nations.
- Spanish forces are slowly pushed back, the superior British and allied forces overwhelming their defences. Britain sees an easy way out of the French fiasco by offering them Catalonia in return for a cease in anti-British conflict.
- At the same time, in the Confederacy of Tejan, mass rebellions begin as the brutally oppressed and overtaxed masses rise up saying it was better under the British. No such luck for the British in the Free Scots Republic which despite serious financial problems refuses to give in, even as massive groups of Deserter immigrants clash with the government as they move towards gold reserves.
- North Africa takes control of a little more of Andalusia and alters itself into the Union of Granada.
- The French rebels are in no mood to negotiate with the British, and turn down their offer of Catalonia. The French people are outraged that the lowly British would attempt to bribe them, and regard it as a sign of weakness. Anti-British fervor is in full swing across France, with all British officials being executed. The revolution quickly re-establishes a new monarchy, which, seeing a common cause with the Spanish, allies itself with the Kingdom of Spain. The French declare they will never, never, suffer under the British again nor allow them to suppress another nation. Instead, they will take the fight to the British Federation.
- The Spanish people, determined not to lose their freedom or their nation to the British, fight on doggedly. National conscription is introduced.
- Navarre officially declares independence and installs a new government as the Federal Republic of Navarre. Scandinavia becomes the first country to recognize the new nation. However, the republic is still at war with Spain.
- The Knights of St. John, as allies of Anatolia, are granted access to the Byzantine-established port on the Persian Gulf. They then set sail towards the Arabian Sea in search of more glory for the Order.
- Mindoro is captured by the Japanese and Russians, as most of the Spanish forces are in Iberia.
- Due to a complete lack of resources, manpower, and allies, the Free Scots' Republic falls to the contingent of British troops in the area (mainly Unionist Scots). The hardcore rebels attempt to flee to Deseret, but not realizing just how xenophobic the Baldurists are, they are captured and used as labor.
- The Confederacy of Tejan begins to break up as the lightly populated interior areas still cannot support themselves.
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