Back to Europe 1430
- Joan of Arc is captured by Burgundians
Cardinal Beaufort dies, just before (in OTL) he convinces the Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, abandon the war in France. Humphrey, as Lord Protector while Henry VI is still a minor, makes plans for another siege of Orleans.
Humphrey begins initiating several reforms to ensure his power as governor of England's affairs.
Humphrey makes plans to take the throne of England.
Humphrey's future plans:
Reduce the power of Parliament by the following actions: Rig the elections for the House of Commons to ensure only the top one thousand richest people in the kingdom vote. Humphrey also has ideas of setting the tradition of the Crown directly appointing the Speaker of the Commons
Reduce the power of the bishops and nobles, cutting down on their privileges.
Start accumulating a lot of wealth of his own, and he soon is richer and more powerful then any noble or bishop in the kingdom.
Forcing Parliament to grant him the rights to levy, collect, and use taxes and duties at will, under his own control, and under his heir's control, "for as long as time lasts".
Create a Series of Merchant Codes.
I needed to change this in order to keep the timeline realistic. This whole ordeal just proves that we need to do our research before we post.
A Danish botanist modifies the traditional three-crop rotation to include a fourth crop, clover which increases soil fertility, and is an excellent fodder crop. this increases both the production of each acre of land in Denmark, and the amount of livestock. This causes a population boom, and allows more Danes to take jobs as artisans or soldiers, increasing Danish productivity as a whole
- Due to increased production and population in this timeline, the OTL event of Erik losing his power as king will never happen. Erik of Pomerania remains king of the Kalmar Union, under his policy the Sound Dues, Danish trade in the Baltic flourishes. The Hanseatic League loses power.
- England sells French territories to Navarre and Burgundy to increase their wealth and to concentrate on manipulating the countries to the North of them. They did this by first solidifying their gains as claims to the Kingdom of England not territories within the Kingdom of France as it had been before.
- English mercenaries help the Shetlanders annex Orkney and help expand the Lordship of the Isles.
- Venice annexes Ragusa.
- Humphrey's plans fall into place. He arranges for Henry to be married to the daughter of King James I of Scots. James accepts. This enrages the French who have not only lost a swath of territory but lost a link to Scotland, a prospective ally. In return the English cede control of areas North of the river Tweed, as well as an area of Ireland. The Anglo-Scottish Alliance is born.
- Genoa secures control over Crimea.
- The United Kingdom of Shetland and Orkney contemplates annexing further islands to the North.
- France hires Swiss and Genoan mercenaries to annex Brittany, Provence and Avignon.
- The Byzantine Emperor is relocated to one of the Greek islands for fear of Ottoman aggression. At the same time Athens is absorbed and made the capitol of the new Athenian Roman Empire. Known simply as the Athenian Empire.
- Genoan influence creates the Republic of Ukraine. Their Doge is also Doge of Genoa.
The Khanate of the Golden Horde is attacked by Georgia, Ukraine, the Principality of Novgorod, Muscovy, and Ryzan. The pressure causes the Khanate to loose control over most of it's land.
Poland-Lithuania Anxes Pskov.
The Habsburgs lose power and their lands are divided between the Swiss, The HRE, Bohemia, Hungary, and Venice.
Castile attacks Granada.
- Florence and Siena enter in war. Florence overwhelms and conquers Siena. The pope makes Lorenzo I di Medici (a different one from the one on OTL) the Doge of Tuscany.
- Several kingdoms break out from the Ottoman Empire. They are: Epitus, Croatia and Bosnia.
- A Greek takes over the Latin Athenian Empire, moving its capital back to Byzantium and transforming the Athenian Empire into the Byzantine Empire.
Ottoman forces march to Bosnia, only to rind that Muslims have already overthrown the Christian Kings
Albania falls to the Ottomans
The pope saves Eipurus, by claiming it for the Papacy
Poland and Lithuania split
The two brothers who rule Poland and Lithuania attack the Teutonic Knights
England, supported by the Scots, invade western France
- Both Greek Orthodox and Catholic churches call a crusade (independently) against the Ottomans.
- The Christian armies make amazing success. Epirus, Albania and Bosnia are liberated again.
- Mass conversions of Muslims on Bosnia succeed.
- Byzantines, Croatians and Knights of St. John make great advances, conquering and converting large pieces of Turk land.
The Danes launch two invasions of the Teutonic Knights, one from Sweden and one from Finland, taking much of the Teutonic territory. These victories help spur a growing spirit of nationalism among the diverse peoples of the Union of Kalmar
- Great lands on OTL Eastern Greece are conquered by the Byzantines.
- The Byzantines create the Kingdom of Bulgaria
- Ottomans are able to capture all of the Anatolian Christian lands excepting for the Aegean Isles.
- Princess Margaret, now 18, is wed to the twenty year old King Henry VI of England. Scotland and England split off parts of their respective Realms. The Scottish part becomes the Duchy of Tweed, directly under the control of Queen Margaret. The English part becomes the Principality of Northumbria, directly under the control of the Lord Protector Humphrey. The idea is that Henry VI is suzerain of the Duchy of Tweed and James II, brother of the Queen of England, is suzerain of the Principality of Northumbria. This draws the two kingdoms closer together even more.
- Castile completes the conquest of Granada.
- The conquest of European Ottomans is completed.
- Muscovy annexes Tyver and Rostov.
- England sells sections of English France to Navarre and Burgundy, then gives half of the remainder to Scotland.
- Venice expands along the coast and annexes a large section of the Balkans. They change their name to the Most Serene Republic of Venezia.
- United Kingdom of Shetland and Orkney annexes some more islands.
- The Zayyanids collapse after losing Granada and are conquered by the neighbouring Maranids and Hafsids.
- Aragon takes control of the Kingdom of Cyprus.
- Burgundy takes areas of the Holy Roman Empire and Luxembourg.
- The Duke of Burgundy dies with no heir, under the laws of the empire the Burgundian territories fall to the liege lords of various vassal states. This essentially splits the land between the Holy Roman Emperor, currently the King of Bohemia since the fall of Luxembourg, and the King of France. The lords of Brittany owing only allegiance to the duke of Burgundy, elect a Grand Duke of Brittany.
- The King of Bohemia, now Holy Roman Emperor gathers the dukes of the Empire to strike back at those who attacked the Empire's Teutonic Knights, attacking Poland and the Kalmar Union. During the war planning sessions talks begin of establishing a more stable and modern governmental model for the Empire.
- With English help, the Scots begin forcing the Lordship of the Isles to accept the King of Scotland as suzerain.
- The Holy Roman Empire continues to expand into Kalmar and Polish territory.
- Venezia grows along the coast.
- The Kingdom of Cyprus and the Byzantine Empire push into the Asian Ottoman Empire.
- The Holy Roman Emperor breaks the power of the various principalities in a fashion similar to what has happened in England. The Holy Roman Empire becomes a united if mildly fractious (caused by dissenting nobles) entity. More powerful nobles like those of Brandenburg and Bohemia are virtually unaffected however. Indeed, with even less nobles, these Kings become even more powerful.
- The Kalmar Union and Poland sign the Treaty of Danzig. Poland cedes conquered territory to the Kingdom of Bavaria, the Margraviate of Brandenburg, and the newly created Duchy of Prussia within the Holy Roman Empire. Kalmar Union cedes territory to the Duke of Holstein within the Holy Roman Empire, and is allowed to keep Estonia. The Teutonic Knights are disbanded and the Duchy of Livonia is established in their stead.
- The merchants of Ukraine elect a new Doge, breaking the Doge of Genoa's hold on the Republic.
- Scotland vanquishes the Lordship of the Isles. Scotland, England, Navarre and Britanny, all nations with competent sailors make fishing settlements on Iceland.
- Castile and Aragon unite into the Kingdom of Spain. The King of Castile and the Queen of Aragon share the throne of Spain.
- Venezia conquers more land in the Balkans.
- The Byzantine Empire and the Spanish complete the crusade against the Ottomans. The Spanish create the Kingdom of Anatolia.
- Queen Margaret gives birth to a child, Prince Charles. For now, he is heir to the thrones of England and Scotland.
France and England, fearful of the Holy Roman Empire's growing might, join in the alliance of Danzig, and attack the Holy Roman Empires northwestern border. this gives the Union of Kalmar a chance to regain the offensive, and they launch an attack on the Holy Roman territories in Denmark
- Using the breach of the Treaty of Danzig and aggression against its Hanseatic allies as casus belli, Novgorod invades Swedish Karelia.
- Holy Roman Empire members Switzerland, Savoy, and Livonia make gains against the Kalmar Union and France
- The Pope condemns the unprovoked attacks on the Holy Roman Empire by England and France and warns that further aggression may lead to excommunication.
- The Kalmar Union demands Brittany, Scotland, England, and Navarre halt their intrusions on the Norwegian lands of Iceland.
- England, Scotland, Britanny and Navarre agree not to expand further but retain their existent settlements.
- England withdraws from continental Europe not wanting the war to become to expensive or risk excommunication.
- Livonia recaptures the remainder of the former Teutonic possessions.
- Switzerland and Savoy continue to expand into France.
- Scotland begins a war against the Shetlanders. It soon gets bogged down so they offer the Kalmar Union Orkney in return for military assistance. Tragically, James II is killed by an Orcadian assassin, leaving his sister Margaret as heir to the throne. The bond between England and Scotland is strengthened further.
- Muscovy intervenes on the side of Kalmar.
- Libya expands to the coast.
- While Novgorod holds off the forces of the Kalmar Union and Muscovy in the west, Muscovy conquers large swaths of Novgorod's less settled eastern lands.
- France and the Holy Roman Emperor meet in Calais signing the Treaty of Calais. The HRE cedes the traditionally french lands south of Calais to France, while the other HRE members maintain the lands taken in the war. The Duchy of the Netherlands is established.
- With France handled, the Emperor turns his attentions towards the Kalmar Union. The King of the Kalmar Union sends an emissary to negotiate peace. The Swedish Privy Council sees this as an outrage as the breaking of the Treaty of Danzig had resulted in heavy Swedish losses, a movement to install a new King of Sweden gains ground.
- Portugal launches an invasion of the Maranids.
- The Byzantine Empire, extremely weak, falls apart after miraculously defeating the Ottomans and insurmountable odds.
- Genoa lands an army and conquers the Aegaen islands and part of the North coast of Turkey on the Black Sea.
- Spain gains more land in Anatolia and the rest of Byzantium in Anatolia falls apart and becomes separate Turkish emirates.
- Venice lands an army on the Peloponnese takes all of it, one could say with their hands tied behind their backs.
- Bulgaria conquers more area around Adrianople.
- Brittany, after escaping France, is finally a true part of England.
- Hungary attacks and gains territory from the weakened Croats.
I have begun to make the border around the Holy Roman Empire
A famine reduces European populations in most countries by up to 20%.
Denmark is unaffected by the famine, thanks to their innovative farming techniques, which have caused a population boom is the Union of Kalmar.
immigrants arrive in Kalmar from the HRE, France, England, and Novgorod, swelling the population, but not enough to create unrest.
the Danish King create a "royal college", in order to encourage innovation, after seeing the effects of advanced Danish agriculture.
The Danes take the opportunity to push Novgorod out of Scandinavia entirely.
- France declares war on Navarre.
- Bulgaria takes more from the Byzantine Empire.
- Greek states emerge from the ruins of the Byzantine Empire.
- Spain lands a small army and captures an area on Attica.
- Albania conquers some small Greek States.
The Danes buy their land back from the HRE in exchange for grain shipments, in order to relieve the famine.
- The Swedish Privy council elects a new King of Sweden, breaking ties with the Danish Crown. The King of Denmark quickly begins to strengthen ties with Norway, formally unifying both nations into the single Kingdom of Denmark.
- Portugal makes more gains against the Maranids.
- Muscovy and Novgorod sign the Treaty of Moskva, ceding the eastern Novgorodian lands for a "Perpetual assurance of independence" Novgorod enters into a perpetual alliance with Muscovy, and Muscovy is sworn to defend Novgorod's independence from all enemies.
- The King of Bohemia/Holy Roman Emperor secretly converts to Hussitism and begins discreetly giving state support to the Hussites within Bohemia and the surrounding HRE lands. He also begins strengthening ties with the southern princes of the empire with a series of political marriages and treaties.
- The Duke of Milan marries the only daughter and heir of Savoy, ensuring a personal union on the death of the Duke of Savoy.
- With the annexation of Brittany by England, the Breton Earl of Skaftafels in Iceland protests this bold move by the English King and declares himself Regent of the Bretons in Exile.
Fixed the HRE border. Member states of the HRE include the Netherlands, Livonia, Savoy, Valais, Milan, Genoa, Ferrara, Mantua, Swiss Confed, Bohemia, and Brandenburg. I think Tuscany was a member as well, but we'll leave them out for now.
- Scotland completes the conquest of Shetland on their own. The Orkneys retain sovereignty as Orcadia.
- Some of the most powerful and influential of Henry VI's nobles overthrow him for incompetence in favour of his nine year old son. King Charles I is now King of England and heir to the throne of Scotland. Some say Henry's wife-Margaret, Queen of Scots-colluded with the nobles to bring about her husbands downfall. She reigns as Lady Protector until Charles is 18. There are however murmurings from the less powerful nobles, who had less to lose from having a simpleton King, support Henry VI and his siblings. Many fear a war is coming.
- Genoa takes control of Constantinople, bringing a final end to the Byzantine and by extension the Roman Empire. The great museums and libraries of Constantinople are now at their disposal. Knowledge and writings from the days of Ancient Rome are shipped back to Genoa and translated. A Golden Age of learning begins in Italy.
- Venezia invades Albania and adds it to its growing Mediterranean empire.
- Portugal expands against the Hafsids and Spain expands into Maranid lands.
- Ryazan is conquered by the Golden Horde.
- After a great debate, England agrees to return Brittany into Breton hands but demand that they recognise King Charles as their overlord. The Bretons agree.
- With the downfall of the Calmar Union, England, Scotland, Brittany and Navarre think it is safe to start expanding their settlements on Iceland.
- Portugal captures more coast from the Maranids
- The Hafsids beat back the Spanish
- Spain conquers more Greek states in Attica
- Genoa takes Greek states around Olympus
- Prussian Princes unite after their forefathers, the Teutonics, 'unrightfully' lost their land. They declare autonomy and break apart from the HRE.
The Duchy of Northumbria is reunited with England.
Somebody please make a map reflecting the change
- Scotland abolishes the Duchy of Tweed and Scotland and England are at open war.
- Spain attacks Venice's territories on the Peloponnese, Venice is now at war with Spain.
- Hungary also attacks Venice and gains vital territory on the Adriatic Sea.
- The Mamluk Sultanate takes territory from the new and weak Libyans
- Spain, Genoa and Hungary join forces against Venezia. Spain wants to secure control over southern Greece, Genoa is jealous of Venetian power in the Aegean and Hungary wants a strong coastline.
- Scottish Henricists (supporters of Henry VI) unseat Margaret and put Charles on the throne of Scotland and invite Henry VI to be his Protector, in England and Scotland. Charles is now King of England, Scotland and Ireland, bringing the plan instigated by Humphrey almost to a close. Peace is made between England and Scotland.
- Mamluks annex more Libyan ground.
- Settlements on Iceland expand.
Charles I of England, Scotland, and Ireland is tired of waiting in the background while others rule in his name. He is only fourteen, but speaks French, Latin, Greek, German, Italian, English, Irish, and Scottish, and has a fond interest in science, history, and theology. Charles, with the support of his army, banishes his mother Margaret I and father Henry VI to France. Charles I then proclaims himself absolute ruler. Charles becomes known as the "Wise" since he grants charters to cities, reorganizes the military, and gives the nobles control of local government. Charles unites Scotland and England (as well their territories in Ireland) into one country: the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, reviving a old term used by the Romans. Charles then promises Britain will not expand, and is satisfied with her territory. Charles I then signs an alliance with France.
Somebody please make a map reflecting the changes