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Europe, 610-750 (Saint Muhammad)

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The following is a timeline of Europe in the Saint Muhammad timeline. NOTE: The first important change in Europe out of OTL is around the 670's as Byzantium had been occupied in the Middle East before that.

  • 610-675: More to come
  • 676: The Avar, Slav and Bulgar tribes begin migrating west in response to pressure to the east. The Lombard king Pectarit begins negotiations with the Byzantine emperor Konstantinos XI so to take over the remains of Italy. However, negotiations are stalled when tensions between Arians and Catholics begin to arise in Northern Italy.
  • Lombard-Byzantine Treaty SM

    The Lombard Kingdom after the Treaty. Byzantine possessions in orange

    677: With Pectarit temporarily bringing down revolting Arian Lombards, Byzantium continues negotiations. By December, a compromise is reached: Konstantinos will hand over all of the Exarchate of Ravenna and Dalmatia except several cities (see map). In return, the Lombard king promises to vow loyalty to the Emperor and form the Empire of the West. The Saxon king begins establishing more regional authority over the local tribes and amassing a collective army of several of the tribes near the border with Turingia
  • 678: The Lombard King begins declaring himself Emperor of the West and begins arming up an army. He moves his sede to the more Romanic Mediolandium, close to Pavia.
  • 679:The Saxon king establishes the Saxon Empire with semi-feudalistic ideals so to not anger the more powerful Saxon tribes.
  • SM Europe Lombard-Byzantine-Saxon-Pyrdish division

    The division of Europe; in cyan Saxony, in yellow the Lombards, in purple the Byzantines and in green the Pyrdish.

    680: The Saxon Empire and the Pyrdish Kingdom accords an alliance dividing Europe with the Lombards and Byzantines; the old Danube border with Byzantium is agreed upon, although the Lombards give up everything until the Seine through a land bridge to the Doubs and to the Alps.
  • 681: Byzantium, Pectarit and Waldar of Saxony all coordinate and strike against the Frankish Kingdom. The Franks, surprised, outnumbered and outgunned, soon lose Provence, parts of Burgundy and most of Thuringia. The Pyrdish, although they don't join the war, send aid to the allies.
  • 682: The Visigoths declare a separate war against the Franks, attempting to strike at them while they fight in the east. Dagobert II splits his army and sends half of it to the Visigothic area, where they soon defeat the Goths in Septimania; however, this makes the Merovingian army in the east even less efficient. More of Burgundy falls by the end of the year.
  • Frankish Division

    The division of the Frankish Empire was accorded well before the war. The frontier went through the Seine, the Rhone's tributaries and the Alps.

    686: France's eastern troops are entirely destroyed with Dagobert himself falling prisoner. The subsequent anarchy makes the fall of the Frankish Empire even easier. Augusta Treverorum at last falls under the Saxons after a long siege. With only Neustria and Aquitania still under the Franks' control, the Empire of the West and the Saxon Empire once again meet to establish the exact lines for Frank division. The Seine-Rhone-Alps frontier is agreed upon.
  • 687: Charles the Impatient, an important Frankish noble, tries to attack with a recently levied army. After defeating the Saxons and Lombards by surprising them, the impacient Charles (hence his name) decided to attack all too quickly an army at Lyons without resting. This led to a humiliating defeat and the destruction of most of the Frankish army. On a more positive note for the Franks, the Byzantine Empire withdraws its troops, transporting them to Palestine so to prepare for Byzantine intervention in the First Arabian War. The Lombard troops are left alone, but they have gained much too experience and defeated too many Franks so for that to be a vital drawback.
  • SMFranciaAfterWar

    Francia was reduced to Aquitaine after the War

    688: Lombard troops, being called by the Byzantines so to aid them with the Arabs, launch a last, desperate offensive, seizing the remains of Neustria (including Parisium) and meeting with the Saxons on the Seine. The Westerners, afraid they will lose their conquered territories if they withdraw to aid the Byzantines, accord a peace deal with the Franks leaving them Aquitaine. Some troops are kept so to protect the territories and most are sent east.
  • 689: Alahis, the Arian duke of Pavia, declared his intention to become Emperor of the West. It is thought that, for being Arian (although with heavy Catholicised theological points) and official anti-Catholic, Alahis was supported by both Pagan Saxons and, after the Great Schism, Orthodox Byzantines. The Saxon Empire begins slowly expanding east.
  • 690: Alahis tries to take Milan, but is defeated and driven south into Tuscia. There, to gain the popularity of the Romance population, he takes the Roman name Alahus Kaeso Lombardus Bavarus (a quadruple name to retain his original one, add a roman one, call himself of the "Lombard" dynasty and the "Bavarian" branch), which, although somewhat out of touch with the now-simplified people's Italian names, is far more "civilised" than the old Lombard one. This gains him the will of the Duke of Tuscia and the Prince of Benevento, who rise their arms up in rebellion (one taking the dynasty "Ciompi" and the other one "Beneventi" and adopting simple double names in a more popular fashion rather than the Roman revivalist one). Several border Saxon feudal nobles call their banners so to protect their territory in the case of an invasion by any of the two Lombard dukes.
  • Carolingian CoA

    The first Carolingian Coat of Arms display a simple yellow background and the signature of the then-leader Charles slightly off-center.

    691: Lacking the proper popularity among nobles so to defeat Pectarit, Alahis begins establishing a semi-feudal government after the Saxon one. While, with only three main Dukes in Italy (Tuscia, Benevento and Lombardy) this doesn't take root, the several Francian lords gladly accept, looking for more power amongst each other. Soon, the Robertian family (creater Duke of Parisium and Normandy) becomes predominant among the Frankish dynasties, together with the Carolingians, created Dukes of Poitou and Orléans (even though Charles Martel had been the true leader during the war, the Merovignians were given the blame). These soon afterwards rise up in arms themselves against Pectarit.
  • 692: Supported by all the might of southern Italy, Alahis once again marches on Pavia. Unexpected by Pectarit, Alahis smashes the Lombard army and drives the remainders to Lake Como, where they remain as a stronghold as the remaining few lords surrender and are created local minor dukes.
  • 693: Pectarit's siege in Como ends and he is captured and imprisoned. Several of his supporters flee to the Lombard's ancient lands in the Avar Khaganate.
  • 694: In something similar to the First Arabian War that had just finished in the Middle East, the Lombards plea the Avars to attack Byzantium and Lombardy.
  • 695: King Batbayan of the Avars agrees to the Lombard plea and sends an invasion force south to both Pannonia (so to reach Constantinople) and Moesia (to reach Italy).
  • 696: Byzantine troops coming back from the Middle East are able to stop the Avars ambushing them at the Balkanic Mountains. However, the Avars are far from defeated and march again, taking (and looting) the still-Byzantine Varna, which would never recover as a city.
  • 697: Byzantium begins buying Slavic, Turkic and Uralic warriors from Ukraine and allowing them to settle in Moesia and already-Serbian lands if they fight against the Avars. Soon, several Mordvins and Khazars settle in eastern Moesia.
  • 698: A large Lombard army arrives on the Alps and smashes the Avars in the Brenner pass. Later, the same army, pursuing the fleeing Avars, while the Saxons arrive from Bavaria and smash the Avar army.
  • 699: Peace is settled with the Avars withdrawing from formerly Lombard lands, which are divided between the West, Byzantium and Saxony according to the earlier division of Europe.
  • 700: Saxony begins expanding east forcing the Sorbs and other Slavic tribes past the Oder.
  • 701: Western and Byzantine troops begin a campaign to expulse Slavic tribes from Byzantine soil. The "reconquest" was actually three different Byzantine/Lombard armies; one coming down of Thessaloniki across Thessaly until Athens, another one from Constantinople through the Rhodope and Alpic mountains until Histria, and a third one, the longest, from Thessaloniki into Rhodope, through the Danube and south through Macedonia into Dyrrachium. These were made of a few Byzantine cavalrymen but mostly made of Lombards (for the Byzantine army was already being transported east because of the incoming War of the Trinity).
  • 702: The Pagan Revival begins in Europe. Concurrently, the Lombard armies begin successfully moving across Thessaly expelling Slav tribes. The Melingoi and Sagudats are allowed to settle in northern Attica and Achaea respectively but other Thessalian tribes are expelled.
  • 703: The Seven Tribes in Pannonia are allowed to settle on the Danubian coast.
  • 704: A group of Pyrdish soldiers sail from Cornwall and land on Domnonée. The surprised Cornish surrender to their brethren.
  • 705: Lombard soldiers return after defeating or securing the loyalty of the Slav tribes.
  • 708: After a resting period, Lombard troops are launched against Merovingian Aquitaine.
  • 709: With the Great Schism rising, Rome rises up in revolt. Catholics in Lombardia begin requesting the annexation of Rome so to turn it into a true New Roman Empire. Troops in Lombardia continue to overrun Lombardia.
  • 710: The whole Merovingian corps mobilises and launches an attack on the Lombards. They are crushed and entirely destroyed.
  • 711: Lombard troops move south and occupy the nation easily.
  • 714: Francia is annexed by the Lombards and placed under entire dukedom by the Carolingians.
  • 715: Lombard troops move back to Italia, where the Catholics begin to become unruly. They take residence in Pisa, the center of House Ciompi. Rome declares its independence with the Byzantines heavily in problems thanks to the Siege of Constantinople.
  • 716: The Roman state is placed under direct jurisdiction by the Pope. Catholics continue rebelling.
  • 717: Alahus moves a large contingent west to the Pyrenees.
  • 720: Alahus smashes into the Wisigoth kingdom, taking Septimania soon and landing an army in Iberia Carthaginensis (Cartagena and Murcia, Spain).
  • 721: The Septimanian front crosses the Pyrenees and soon seizes an unsuspecting Zaragoza, then moving north into Asturias and the Basque country. In Carthaginensis, small land gains are made. Byzantium falls in the War of the Trinity, and the Empire decides to stop focusing on the Middle East and begin taking European lands. They send a small corps south into Baetica, taking Portus Albus (OTL Algeciras) and landing a small host near the Lombard host in Carthaginensis.
  • 722: The Saxons begin a campaign against the Slavs, loosely modeled in the Byzantine one. Their plan is to expand the Saxon ruling area until the Oder and to North Sea areas occupied by Scandinavian Vikings.
  • 723: A lot of Carthaginensis falls to Lombard forces. The Pyrdish do their first important contribution to a Lombard war in Western Europe by landing in the northernmost coast of Gallaecia and Asturias, while in the Carthaginensis coast the Byzantines continue to gain territory.
  • 724: With the remainder of Visigoth armies collapsing, the king surrenders to the Lombards. The Lombards give the southern coast of Carthaginensis (OTL Murcia southwards) and the eastern coast of Baetica (OTL up until Cadiz). Tarraconensis, inner Carthaginensis, Cantabra and Asturas are given to the Lombards, while Gallaecia and Lusitania remain a rump vassal of the Lombards.
  • 725: Byzantium recognises Rome as the independent Papal State.
  • 726: The Saxon emperor calls his bannermen and launches an invasion to take Slavic lands to the east. They begin marching north to purge the Slavic and North Germanic tribes.
  • 727:Saxon troops continue marching north, warring against Obrodites north of the Elbe. After suffering some initial defeats across the Elbe, they march again with more strength and defeat them, founding the city of Waldarburg east of OTL Hamburg.
  • 728: The Odobrites continue to be pushed back into Jutland and Pommerania, leaving land behind for Saxon soldiers to occupy.
  • 730: The last of the Odobrite troops flee from Jutland into Pommerania.
  • 731: Content with the territory (for now), the Saxon emperor builds the Limes Saxoniæ in the area beyond the Elbe recently annexed by Saxony. This area becomes the chief area of settlement of the Saxons for the next half-century.
  • 735: Hops is for the first time cultivated in southern Germany.
  • 737: The Robertian family are faced with civil war after a Robertian heir, Louis Tirel (literally, Louis the Obstinate, later on becoming his branch of dynasty's name), lands from Angleland with an Anglish corps (gained thanks to his wife, Marjorie, daughter of the King of Angleland). Soon enough, most of Normandy is divided.
  • 738: The city of Venice, de jure under Byzantine prominence, declares Marcello Tegalliano as their doge. Byzantium, not interested in the area, grants Tegalliano sovereignty. A large part of Normandy falls under the more numerous Tirellian forces.
  • 739: Olaf Waldarson, a local warlord of Bavarians in Juvavum, begins expanding his territory after he defeats a  group of Carinthian tribes. Shortly afterwards, the Pannonian Roman peoples begin to unify in the Lake Balaton not far to the east.
  • 738: Louis Tirel takes over Parisium, securing his hold over all of Normandy. Swearing allegiance to  the Emperor of the West, he soon has control over almost all of the Robertian duchy, with a bit of southern Órleans holding out to Hugh, the earlier Duke. Meanwhile, Olaf continues annexing Bavarian and Carinthian tribes and forms a small duchy, granting several fiefdoms to his generals to keep them loyal.
  • 739: Hugh flees with several loyal Franks west to Maine, where the Emperor of the West grants them their own fiefdom, the Duchy of Perche. This splits the Robertian dynasty into the Tyrells and the Perchéns. 

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