The ESR is a collection of socialist republics formed after the end of the Great European War. Before the ESR was a nation known as the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or the USSR, more commonly called the Soviet Union. Soviet success came after the end of the Second World War in which after attacking the German Empire and ending the war by meeting with French forces on the Rhine River. The USSR until 1953 was under the control of Joseph Stalin who later in 1954 was replaced with Giorgi Zhukov. The Great European War was the tipping point for the USSR. 5 capitalist countries had crossed the Rhine and Isonzo Rivers to invade the USSR. Fighting would rage from 1957-1962 and have over 100 million casualties. The USSR suffered many of its cities destroyed by nuclear strikes in the war. In 1963 Soviet bombers and transport planes dropped fliers all over Britain and North Africa saying, "Workers and oppressed peoples of Europe, rejoice, the Eurasian Soviet Republic will liberate you".