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The Eurasian Legislature was first created after the Russian Rebellion in 1905, but its powers were extremely expanded after the Autumn Revolutions of 1920. The bicameral nature of the Palace was born after reforms starting in 1994, establishing the modern Legislature as we know it.
The Legislature convenes in the Palace of the Soviets, located 21 kilometres off the city border of Saint Petersburg. Construction began in 1937, but was only finished in 1955, after which, at 415 meters high, it was the highest building in the world for nearly 20 years, and the highest in the Eurasian Union for 34. The Palace houses 3348 LMs (Legislative Members); 3048 members of the lower house and 300 in the upper house, as well as massive amounts of historical and cultural rooms.
Duma of the Union
The Duma of the Union is the upper house of the government. The Duma was founded on the 1990s during reforms by the one-party ProgLib government because of the quagmire developing in the lower house. The Duma created extensive powers for the new upper chamber, although many of them remained shared with the Duma of Nationalities - the Duma of the Union can pass through legislature if it has been bogged down in "repeated revision" for over three months. Since its first official composition following the 1997 elections, every Prime Minister and over half of the Cabinet has come from this chamber.
The Duma of the Union is elected every three years through nationwide proportional representation in which the seats are arranged to party lists according to a single nationwide constituency, as a separate election (although arranged on the same timetable) from the extremely heterogeneous group of composite elections that composes the creation of the Duma of Nationalities. The upper house, furthermore, is by law restricted to 300 Members of Parliament, a stark decrease from the 3048 MPs that the Duma of Nationalities has.
With a 5% threshold on representation, all regional parties act as one for Upper House election, and no independent (non-federally-alligned) parties are represented. All 300 MPs belong to one of five political parties: the Communist Party of the Eurasian Union, New Labour, the Green Party - Party of Regions, the Progressive Union - "the Liberals" and the Conservative Party of Eurasia. These five parties all coalesce into two major blocs; the Communists, Labour and the Green-Mensheviks caucus as the Reds (Krasnyye), while the ProgLibs and the Conservatives caucus as the Yellows (Zholtogo).
The 2015 election saw a net loss of 24 seats by part of the Reds in favour of the Yellows - the ProgLibs being the main beneficiaries of this, recovering 7 percentage points and 21 of the 33 seats it had lost in the 2012 election. These gains were mostly made off the backs of the Communists, who lost a lot of support after the end of the Ponomarev premiership. However, the Red Bloc retained their majority - barely - in Congress, with Oleh Lyashko from the Green Mensheviks becoming the new First Minister.
|Communist Party||Trudoviks||Green Party - Party of Regions||Progressive Union - The Liberals||Cons|
per party bloc:
|Krasnyye - The Reds||Zholtyye - The Yellows|
Duma of Nationalities
Because of the lack of political thresholds and the federal nature of the Duma of Nationalities, in fact the composition of the Duma is not actually of the five parties, but rather by members of all the regional parties that tend to affiliate with one of the five federal ones. There is no legal necessity, however, for representatives to follow the federal organisation; in fact, the Duma has no whip, and regional parties are often not directly aligned to their Federal counterparts (several regionalist parties tied to the Green-Mensheviks, for instance, are centre-right; a large portion of ProgLib parties are social liberal and social democrats, instead of liberals). Furthermore, the lack of a national parliamentary threshold means that 166 delegates (5% of the Duma) are not even tied to a single federal party, but rather compose the Mixed Group (Smeshannaya gruppa) - refusing a majority to both of the political blocs in Parliament. Composed of 3046 delegates (plus the Speaker and Deputy Speaker), lobbying is extremely difficult to arrange. The Duma of Nationalities tends to be ineffective and uncooperative.
Some of the party members, further, are not directly elected. Roughly a third of Conservative MPs are independent representatives from religious organisations, most often the Russian Orthodox Church; some Communists and Trudoviks are representatives from major trade unions and Makhnovist Free Soviets; many Green-Mensheviks are representatives from cultural institutions and organisations; and many ProgLibs are representatives from lobbying groups and private corporations. This chaotic mixup means that of the 3048 total delegates, only roughly 2500 are elected by the suffrage, either directly or indirectly, even when the seats are all arranged by state and population (with different states having different arrangements to allow non-elected individuals to serve in the Duma).
|Communist Party||Trudoviks||Green Party - Party of Regions||Oth||Progressive Union - The Liberals||Conservative Party|
per party bloc:
|Krasnyye - The Reds||Sm||Zholtogo - The Yellows|
Composition by Province
Russia has 1318 members of the Duma, accounting for approximately 43% of all the seats. Of the 1318, only 989 are directly elected; a fourth are reserved for seats of the church, corporations, trade unions and Soviets. The other 989 seats are arranged proportionally related to the Russian regional Duma, which is in turn elected through mix-member proportional representation. Russia skews way to the right of the rest of the states of the Eurasian Union; while only 48% of the Duma is given to the Red Bloc in Eurasia as a whole, 55% of the seats proportioned to states other than Russia goes to a Red.
The names of the parties within the Russian Federation are as following:
- The Communist Party of the Eurasian Federation goes as the Marxist-Bukaninite Free Association
- The New Labour Party goes as Russian Labour
- The Green Party-The Mensheviks goes as the Green Party of Russia
- The Progressive Union-Liberals goes as the Free Democratic Party, and
- The Conservative Party of Eurasia goes as the Conservative Party of Russia.
The main federally independent party is right-wing anti-establishment party United Russia, led by dissidents of the Conservatives.
Ukraine has 268 members of Parliament. 200 of these seats are reserved to direct suffrage; 58 to the unions and Free Soviets, 9 to the Ukrainian Language Cultural Association, and 1 to the United Greek Association of Ukraine. Opposite of Russia, Ukraine screws very heavily to the left. The Communists (of which the Anarchists are by far the dominant faction) and the Green Mensheviks (which skew relatively left, being a socialist-agrarian party) dominate over two-thirds of the political agenda. The Prime Minister of Eurasia comes from the Radical Party of Ukraine, tied to the Green Mensheviks.
Ukraine has three different elections at a time in 2015. There's the national election, the regional election (in which Assembly members are elected through MMP) and the Duma of Nationalities election, in which MMP is also used. Ukraine is remarkable for using approval voting rather than single-vote or ranked vote in both regional elections. In Ukraine, the names of political parties are as follows:
- The Communist Party officially goes as Dielo Truda - Free Platformist Party - The Makhnovists
- New Labour goes as Labour Party Ukraine
- The Green-Mensheviks go as the Ukrainian Radical Party - Batkivshchyna
- The Progressive-Liberals go as the Ukrainian Democratic Alliance for Reform,
- The Conservatives go as the Ukrainian Party - Svoboda.
The main independent party in Ukraine is the Free People's Party, an independent anarchist organisation independent from Dielo Truda.
In Uzbekistan the parties go by the following names:
- The Communists go as the Democratic People's Party or Xalq Demokratik
- The Trudoviks go as Adolat - the Social Democrats
- The Green-Mensheviks go as Ekologik Hаrаkаti - The Ecological Movement
- The Progressive Liberals go as Birlik - The Unity People's Movement
- The Conservatives go as Milliy Tiklanish Demokratik - The National Revival Democratic Party.
In Manchuria, the parties go as follows:
- The Communists go as the Seven Banners
- New Labour goes as the Manchu Labour Union - but is affiliated to the People's Party
- The Green Mensheviks go as the People's Party
- The Progressive Liberals go as the Democratic Party of Manchuria
- The Conservatives go as the Concordia Association
|SB||L||People's Party||O||Dem||Concordia Association|
The parties' names are:
- The Communists go as the Kazakh Free Party
- New Labour goes as Kazakh Labour - "Auyl"
- The Green-Mensheviks go as Alash! - Forward!
- The Progressive Liberals go as Nur Otan - Brilliant Fatherland,
- The Conservatives go as Ak Zhol - Bright Future
|Free Party||Auyl||Alash||Nur Otan||A|