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The Eurasian Legislature was first created after the Russian Rebellion in 1905, but its powers were extremely expanded after the Autumn Revolutions of 1920. The bicameral nature of the Palace was born after reforms starting in 1994, establishing the modern Legislature as we know it.
The Legislature convenes in the Palace of the Soviets, located 21 kilometres off the city border of Saint Petersburg. Construction began in 1937, but was only finished in 1955, after which, at 415 meters high, it was the highest building in the world for nearly 20 years, and the highest in the Eurasian Union for 34. The Palace houses 3348 LMs (Legislative Members); 3048 members of the lower house and 300 in the upper house, as well as massive amounts of historical and cultural rooms.
Duma of the Union
The Duma of the Union is the upper house of the government. The Duma was founded on the 1990s during reforms by the one-party ProgLib government because of the quagmire developing in the lower house. The Duma created extensive powers for the new upper chamber, although many of them remained shared with the Duma of Nationalities - the Duma of the Union can pass through legislature if it has been bogged down in "repeated revision" for over three months. Since its first official composition following the 1997 elections, every Prime Minister and over half of the Cabinet has come from this chamber.
The Duma of the Union is elected every three years through nationwide proportional representation in which the seats are arranged to party lists according to a single nationwide constituency, as a separate election (although arranged on the same timetable) from the extremely heterogeneous group of composite elections that composes the creation of the Duma of Nationalities. The upper house, furthermore, is by law restricted to 300 Members of Parliament, a stark decrease from the 3048 MPs that the Duma of Nationalities has.
With a 5% threshold on representation, all regional parties act as one for Upper House election, and no independent (non-federally-aligned) parties are represented. All 300 MPs belong to one of five political parties: the Communist Party of the Eurasian Union, New Labour, the Green Party - Party of Regions, the Progressive Union - "the Liberals" and the Conservative Party of Eurasia. These five parties all coalesce into two major blocs; the Communists, Labour and the Green-Mensheviks caucus as the Reds (Krasnyye), while the ProgLibs and the Conservatives caucus as the Yellows (Zholtogo).
The 2015 election saw a net loss of 24 seats by part of the Reds in favour of the Yellows - the ProgLibs being the main beneficiaries of this, recovering 7 percentage points and 21 of the 33 seats it had lost in the 2012 election. These gains were mostly made off the backs of the Communists, who lost a lot of support after the end of the Ponomarev premiership. However, the Red Bloc retained their majority - barely - in Congress, with Oleh Lyashko from the Green Mensheviks becoming the new First Minister.
|CPEF||Trud.||Green Party - Party of Regions||Progressive Union - The Liberals||Con.|
per party bloc:
|Krasnyye - The Reds||Zholtyye - The Yellows|
Duma of Nationalities
Because of the lack of political thresholds and the federal nature of the Duma of Nationalities, in fact the composition of the Duma is not actually of the five parties, but rather by members of all the regional parties that tend to affiliate with one of the five federal ones. There is no legal necessity, however, for representatives to follow the federal organisation; in fact, the Duma has no whip, and regional parties are often not directly aligned to their Federal counterparts (several regionalist parties tied to the Green-Mensheviks, for instance, are centre-right; a large portion of ProgLib parties are social liberal and social democrats, instead of liberals). Furthermore, the lack of a national parliamentary threshold means that 166 delegates (5% of the Duma) are not even tied to a single federal party, but rather compose the Mixed Group (Smeshannaya gruppa) - refusing a majority to both of the political blocs in Parliament. Composed of 3046 delegates (plus the Speaker and Deputy Speaker), lobbying is extremely difficult to arrange. The Duma of Nationalities tends to be ineffective and uncooperative.
Some of the party members, further, are not directly elected. Roughly a third of Conservative MPs are independent representatives from religious organisations, most often the Russian Orthodox Church; some Communists and Trudoviks are representatives from major trade unions and Makhnovist Free Soviets; many Green-Mensheviks are representatives from cultural institutions and organisations; and many ProgLibs are representatives from lobbying groups and private corporations. This chaotic mixup means that of the 3048 total delegates, only roughly 2500 are elected by the suffrage, either directly or indirectly, even when the seats are all arranged by state and population (with different states having different arrangements to allow non-elected individuals to serve in the Duma).
|Communist Party||New Labour -Trudoviks||Green Party - Party of Regions||Mixed Group||Progressive Union - The Liberals||Conservative Party|
per party bloc:
|Krasnyye - The Reds||Smeshan.||Zholtogo - The Yellows|
Composition by Province
Russia has 1318 members of the Duma, accounting for approximately 43% of all the seats. Of the 1318, only 989 are directly elected; a fourth are reserved for seats of the church, corporations, trade unions and Soviets. The other 989 seats are arranged proportionally related to the Russian regional Duma, which is in turn elected through mix-member proportional representation. Russia skews way to the right of the rest of the states of the Eurasian Union; while only 48% of the Duma is given to the Red Bloc in Eurasia as a whole, 55% of the seats proportioned to states other than Russia goes to a Red.
The names of the parties within the Russian Federation are as following:
- The Communist Party of the Eurasian Federation goes as the Marxist-Bukaninite Free Association
- The New Labour Party goes as Russian Labour
- The Green Party-The Mensheviks goes as the Green Party of Russia
- The Progressive Union-Liberals goes as the Constitutional-Democratic Party/October Alliance, and
- The Conservative Party of Eurasia goes as the Conservative Party of Russia.
The main federally independent party is right-wing anti-establishment party United Russia - The Black Hundreds, led by dissidents of the Conservatives (especially former security agent and perennial Conservative leadership candidate Vladimir Putin).
|MBFA||Russian Labour||Green Party||Mixed Group||Kadets/Octobrists||Conservatives|
Russia is also notable for being the only large state (outside of Free Cities) where the largest party left of centre is the Trudoviks.
Ukraine has 268 members of Parliament. 200 of these seats are reserved to direct suffrage; 58 to the unions and Free Soviets, 9 to the Ukrainian Language Cultural Association, and 1 to the United Greek Association of Ukraine. Opposite of Russia, Ukraine screws very heavily to the left. The Communists (of which the Anarchists are by far the dominant faction) and the Green Mensheviks (which skew relatively left, being a socialist-agrarian party) dominate over two-thirds of the political agenda. The Prime Minister of Eurasia comes from the Radical Party of Ukraine, tied to the Green Mensheviks.
Ukraine has three different elections at a time in 2015. There's the national election, the regional election (in which Assembly members are elected through MMP) and the Duma of Nationalities election, in which MMP is also used. Ukraine is remarkable for using approval voting rather than single-vote or ranked vote in both regional elections. In Ukraine, the names of political parties are as follows:
- The Communist Party officially goes as Dielo Truda - Free Platformist Party - The Makhnovists
- New Labour goes as Labour Party Ukraine
- The Green-Mensheviks go as the Ukrainian Radical Party - Batkivshchyna
- The Progressive-Liberals go as the Ukrainian Democratic Alliance for Reform,
- The Conservatives go as the Ukrainian Party - Svoboda.
The main independent party in Ukraine is the Free People's Party, an independent anarchist organisation independent from Dielo Truda.
|Dielo Truda||L||Batkivshchyna||Mixed Group||UDAR||Sv|
In Uzbekistan the parties go by the following names:
- The Communists go as the Democratic People's Party or Xalq Demokratik
- The Trudoviks go as Adolat - the Social Democrats
- The Green-Mensheviks go as Ekologik Hаrаkаti - The Ecological Movement
- The Progressive Liberals go as Birlik - The Unity People's Movement
- The Conservatives go as Milliy Tiklanish Demokratik - The National Revival Democratic Party.
|Xalq||Adolat||Ekologik Hakarati||Mixed Group||Birlik - UPM||Milliy TD|
Manchu political parties are extremely controversial, with Manchuria remaining under a semi-democratic government with extremely high influence from the palace of the Asingorov (formerly Aisin-Gioro). Even then, even in Manchuria Eurasian representation has to be democratic, and indeed, the Manchu delegation of the Duma skews to the left of the rest of Manchurian political association, with the Concordia Association holding only 54 of 107 seats (compared to 79 out of 115 seats in the Jakun Gusa, the Manchu legislature). This is achieved through a two-round system which results in the leftwing vote consolidating in the People's Party. In Manchuria, the parties go as follows:
- The Communists go as the Nine Banners
- New Labour goes as the Manchu Labour Union - but is affiliated to the People's Party
- The Green Mensheviks go as the People's Party
- The Conservatives go as the Concordia Association
|NB||L||People's Party||I||Concordia Association|
Manchuria is also notable for being the largest state where a party (surprisingly, in this case the Progressive-Liberals) do not have parliamentary representation, and the largest one where there are no minority parties - only a formerly-Concordia independent. The next time a major party does not have representation is Adyghea, with 36 representatives; the next time a minor party does not exist is Bashkortostan, also with 36.
The parties' names are:
- The Communists go as the Kazakh Free Party
- New Labour goes as Kazakh Labour - "Auyl"
- The Green-Mensheviks go as Alash! - Forward!
- The Progressive Liberals go as Nur Otan - Brilliant Fatherland,
- The Conservatives go as Ak Zhol - Bright Future
|Free Party||Auyl||Alash||Nur Otan||A|
Much like Manchuria, in Bukhara political parties still have heavy pressure by part of the Manghit to give the government to the Basmachi Royal Movement. However, the implementation of MMP by liberal Emirs in the 70s means that Basmachi victory can't be as strong as otherwise assured (though they're still overrepresented). In Bukhara, the names of the parties are:
- The Communist Party goes as Young Bukharans
- New Labour goes as Bukharan Labour
- The Green Mensheviks go as the Bukharan Progressive Party
- The Progressive-Liberals go as Ziyalilar - the Bukhori Freeminded Party
- The Conservatives go as the Basmachi Royal Movement
The main minor party is the Jewish-Bukhori Party of Bukhori Reform.
|YB||Lab||Progressives||Mixed Group||Ziyal||Basmachi Royal|
Moscow is by far the place with the closest equilibrium between parties, with all major parties but the Conservatives holding essentially the same number of seats. Because of this, Moscow's legislature does not act in the form of united blocs but as a conciliatory meeting of different parties; this is seen in the state's delegation to the Duma, which has spearheaded much of the compromise reform in recent years. The Muscovite parties are named as following:
- The Communists go as Moscow Now!
- New Labour goes as the Moscow Social Democrats
- The Green Mensheviks goes as A Green Moscow
- The Progressive-Liberals goes as Constitutional Democrats of Moscow - The Progressives
- The Conservatives go as the Moscow First Party
The main minor parties are the right-libertarian Moscow Libertarian Party and the left-libertarian Moscow Enragès. Moscow is notable for having two Pirate Party deputies as well.
|Moscow Now!||Moscow Social Democrats||A Green Moscow||Mixed Group||Kadets of Moscow The Progressives||MF|
Byelorussia is Eurasia's largest deadlocked legislature, and therefore its largest Duma delegation that is deadlocked (ignoring the Duma of Nationalities); as there are 66 members, of which 33 belong to each bloc (and within each bloc, 28 belong to party groups, while 5 are independents and minor parties aligned to each bloc). The parties are named as follows:
- The Communists go as Communists of Belarus
- New Labour goes as the Belarusian Social Democratic Assembly
- The Green-Mensheviks go as the Agrarian Party,
- The Progressive-Liberals go as the Civic Party, and
- The Conservatives go as the "Belarusian Popular Front 'Revival'".
There's 10 seats to non-major-parties and independents (with colourful names such as the Belarusian Socialist Sporting Party).
|Communists of Belarus||L||Agrarian Party||Mixed Group||Civic Party||BPF|
The Uyghur parties are named as follows:
- The Communists go as the Liberation Platform
- New Labour goes as the Uighur People's Party (it's notable for being one of the most independent Labour parties, partially because of its small size.)
- The Greens go as the Free Uighur Party
- The Progressive Liberals go as the Basmachi Movement of Uighurs
- The Conservatives go as the Blue Wolves.
|Liberation Platform||P||Free Uighurs||Mixed Group||Basmachi Movement of Uighurs||Blue Wolves|
Armenian parties go as following:
- The Communists go as the Armenian Communist Party - HKK
- New Labour goes as the Armenian Socialist Party
- The Green-Mensheviks go as the Armenian Revolucionary Federation - Dashnaks
- The Progressive Liberals go as the Armenian Heritage Party - Zharangut’yun
- The Conservatives go as the Tseghakron Republicans
The largest small party is the civic/social democrat Rule of Law Party.
|HK||S||Armenian Revolutionary Federation - Dashnaks||Mixed Group||Zharangut’yun||Tse|
In Azerbaijan, the parties go as follow:
- The Communists are the Popular Front
- The Socialists are the Azerbaijan Social Prosperity Party
- The Green Mensheviks are Musavat (Equality)
- The Progressive-Liberals are Azadlıq - Freedom- notably, they're one of the most leftwing ProgLib parties.
- The Conservatives are the Great Order Party.
The largest minor party is the ideology-less Whole Azerbaijan Front, a personality vehicle for famous politician Ayaz Mutallibov.
|Popular Front||S||Musavat - Equality||WAP||Azadlıq - Freedom||GOP|
The names in Tatarstan are as follows:
- The Conservatives are the Tatarlar Kommunistik Partijase- Tatar Communist Party
- New Labour goes as Gadel Tatarstan Partijase - A Just Tatarstan
- The Green-Mensheviks go as Berdәm Tatarstan - United Tatarstan
- The Progressive-Liberals go as Tatarstan Irek Partijase - The Tatarstan Liberty Party
- The Conservatives go as Saklau Partijase - the Conservation Party
The largest minor party is the left-populist movement IDEL - Iganә, Daimiizm, Egәr, Lәzzәt (Literally Volga - Contribution, Stability, Strength, Prosperity) Party.
|TKP||Gadel||Berdәm Tatarstan||IDEL||Irek Partijase||Saklau|
Adyghea's ostensibly nonpartisan legislature has led to a system where the delegation has 14 members on each side and 10 centrist independents which swing either way. Therefore, Adyghe political movements have no names, although there are still a number of politicians affiliated to the federal parties:
Bashkortostan is notable for being the only large state with a bipartisan government; all representatives in the delegation belong to one of two parties:
- The left party, Hөrriәt Başqortostan (A Fair Bashkiria), and
- The right party, Berҙәm Başqortostan (United Bashkiria).
There are representatives who caucus with other parties, but these are dissidents from the official stance of both parties.
|Hөrriәt Başqortostan||Berҙәm Başqortostan|
Kyrgyzstan's parties are named as follows:
- The Communists are named the United Syndicalist Front
- New Labour goes by the Social Democrats of Kyrgyzstan
- The Green Mensheviks go by Ar-Namys (The Dignity Party)
- The Progressive Liberals are named Onuguu–Progress
- The Conservatives are named Ata-Zhurt, or Fatherland.
Tajik parties have the following names:
- The Communist Party is the Tajik Communist Party
- New Labour is the Social-Democratic Alliance of Tajikistan
- The Green-Mensheviks go as the Tajik Farmer-Labour Party
- The Progressive-Liberals go as the Party for Democratic Reform
- The Conservatives go as the Islamic Renaissance Party.
|C||SD||Farmer-Labour Party||Party for Democratic Reform||Islamic R.|
Saint Petersburg is notable for being one of the few States of the Union that has a unitary PR list, rather than electoral districts or an indirect election. The main parties are as follows:
- The Communists go as Saint Petersburg Yes!
- New Labour goes as the Saint Petersburg Syndicalist Organisation
- The Green-Mensheviks go as Saint Petersburg Ecologists
- The Progressive Liberals go as the Free Progressive Party
- The Conservatives go as Forward, Petrograd! (or, when feeling particularly moderate, Forward, Saint Petersburg!)
The main minor party is the resident-issues based Union of Saint Petersburg Residents.
|Saint Petersburg Yes!||SP Syndicalist Organisation||Ecologists||Mixed Group||Free Progressives||FPetr|
Georgia is a famous far-left stronghold, and together with (much larger) Ukraine conforms the bedrock of Communist Party support. Georgian parties go by the following names:
- The Communists go by the name of Sotsial-Demok'rat'iuli P'art'ia (Social Democratic Party - an old Bourgeois Democratic Marxist party in the vein of the SRs of the Russian Empire)
- The Trudoviks go by the name of Sakartvelos Leiboristuli (Georgian Labour)
- The Green-Mensheviks go by the name of Demokratiuli Sak’art’velo (Democrats of Georgia)
- The Progressive Liberals are called the Ertiani Natsionaluri Modzraoba (United National Movement), and
- The Conservatives are called the T’avisup’ali Demokratebi (Free Democrats).
|Sotsial-Demok'rat'iuli||Leiboristuli||Demokratiuli Sak'art'velo||Ertiani Natsionaluri||TD|
The parties in Turkmenistan are named as follows:
- The Communists are the Türkmenistanyň Kommunistik Partiyasy - Turkmenistan Communist Party
- The Green-Mensheviks are the Türkmenistanyň Demokratik partiýasy - Turkmenistan Democratic Party
- The Progessive Liberals are the Senagatçylar we Telekeçiler partiýasy - Party of Industrialists and Entrepeneurs
- The Conservatives are the Union of Democratic Forces
|Kommunist||Demokratik partiýasy||Senagatçylar we Telekeçiler||UDF|
The following are the parties of Manchu Korea:
- The Communists go as the Manjuui Kongsandang (Communist Party of Manchuria)
- The Socialists go as the Progressive-Socialist Alliance
- The Greens go as Saenuri - The New Frontier (which unlike its southern counterpart, is a leftwing party)
- The Progressive-Liberals go as the Gugmin Jayudang (National Liberal Party), and
- The Conservatives go as the Kongkoleudi Hyeobhoe (Concordy Association, seeking reunification with the Great Manchu Empire)
The Moksha-Erzya Federation is especially unique in regards to its electoral politics in that it is not ruled by the traditional blocs of Eurasian custom, but instead by two local parties which are allied to each other in an electoral pact against the other national parties. These two parties, the Erzya Local Council Party (Tesken’ Prjavtkuro Partija) and the Moksha Vanguard (PRJA, an acronym for Per’fpjal’, or environment, Rava, or Volga River, and Jarmakt, or prosperity), form the backbone of the Mordvin political system and the source of much of its confederalization. Mordovia retains an absolutely unique political climate, with the centre-left and nativist nature of this coalition and its main opponent guaranteeing the main political axis of the country is between Mordovianism (the belief all of Mordovia is a single group) or divisionism (the belief that the Erzya and Moksha nations are different). Against it are the other major parties, which go as follows:
- The Socialists go as the Loman’ Partija (People's Party)
- The Green-Mensheviks go as the Ras’ke Partija (Nationalist Party)
- The Progressive-Liberals go as the Ikelev Jutycja Liberal Purnavks (Progressive-Liberal Alliance)
- The Conservatives go as Kortams (Dialogue)
|Lo||Ras'ke Partija||Tesken' Prjavtkuro||PRJA||IJLP||Kor|
Finland's internal legislature is famous for its lack of coalitions and blocs, with a directly-elected, nonpartisan head of state/government and internal case-by-case coalition building. Still, all the major parties have an affiliation with the national federations. In Finland, the parties go as follows:
- The Communists go as the Coalition of the Radical Left (Radikaalin vasemmiston liitto, or RVL, in itself a loose coallition of leftwing parties in Finland),
- The Trudoviks go as the Social Democratic Party,
- The Green Mensheviks go as the Maalaisliitto - Agrarian League,
- The Progressive Liberals go as the National Coalition Party, and
- The Conservatives go as the Fennoman Movement.
There are three minor movements as well; the Åland Alliance (constitutionally mandated to always have a representative in the Duma), the Christian Worker's Party - For the Poor and the Pirate Party.
|RVL||Social Democrats||Agrarian League||Mixed Group||National Coalition||Fnn|
Parties in Riga go as follows:
- The Trudoviks go as the Left Trade Union,
- The Green-Mensheviks are three parties; the ethnic Latvian Jaunā strāva - New Current, the Jewish Agudas Israel, the Russian Union - Russkij sojuz and the German Riga Free Minded Party - Freisinnige Partei.
- The Progressive-Liberals go as the Liberal Association of Riga.
|LTU||Jaunā strāva - Agudas Israel - Freisinnige Partei - Russikij Sojuz||Liberal Association|
Lithuanian parties are named as follows:
- The Trudoviks are called the Lithuanian Labour Federation
- The Greens are mainly the Union of Greens and Peasants, though one of their representatives belongs to the Democratic Jewish Union.
- The Progressive-Liberals are named the Lithuanian Christian Democratic Party - notably, not a liberal party.
- The Conservatives are called the Law and Justice Party.
Minor parties represented include the Electoral Committee of Poles, the Liberal Alliance and the Memel German Association.
|Labour Federation||Greens and Peasants (and Jewish)||Mixed Group||Christian Democrats||LJP|
The Khanate's political system is very similar to that of Manchuria and Bukhara; it is, however, slightly more permissive than the other two. The main Mongol parties are as follows:
- The Communists go as the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Front, and were only banned for the last Duma elections (they remain banned in local elections),
- The Greens go as the Civic Will Party,
- The Progressive-Liberals go as the Mongolian People's Party, and
- The Conservatives go as the Democratic Party.
|PRF||Civic Will||People's||Democratic Party|
Buryatia is the largest state that is not an Affiliated State where the Conservatives are the strongest electoral force. With a few, counted exceptions, no states smaller than Buryatia have large, defined political parties, instead having several groups of personality-driven movements and short-lived ideological coalitions.
Sevastopol has three regional parties:
- The Socialists go as Labour
- The Green Mensheviks as the Party of Regions,
- The Progressive-Liberals as the Liberal-Democratic Party.
|Labour||Party of Regions||Liberal-Democratic||C MP|
Aralia has no nationally-recognised political parties. Instead, the various ideological movements all roughly align amongst the major parties.
|Green-Aligned MPs||ProgLib-Aligned MPs||Conservative-Aligned MPs|
Ezo has two major parties; the Ainu People's Party, aligned with the Green-Mensheviks, and the Ainu Nationalist Party, aligned with Progressive Liberals. An independent comes from the Boulangist Ezo First, which remains as a reminder of the Ainu Wars of the 1960s. Ezo political parties are very nationalistic and are unpleasant to work with, according to most MPs.
|Ainu People's||Ezo First||Ainu Nationalist|
Chuvashia has no longstanding political parties, with the Chuvash Legislature stopping being nonpartisan only in 2008. Therefore, and because of its small size, no parties are formally registered within the State. Instead, their MPs are all officially independents, though caucus with the main parties:
|Communist-aligned MPs||Labour-aligned MPs||Green-aligned MPs||Independent MPs||ProgLib-aligned MPs||Con. MPs|
Chuvashia is also the smallest State where all political parties have parliamentary representation.
Mari El, or the Marya Federation, has long had one major party and several small, short-lived opposition parties. This party, dubbed "the most successful local party in Eurasia", is Sergej Čavajn Oto party - also the founding party of the Green-Mensheviks. The importance of Oto, especially relative to its small size, can't be overstated. Because of Oto's superb organisation and the real lack of opposition, the party has been able to hold power on the State for almost all of its 80 years of existance. The Mari delegation's composition is as follows:
|Yoshk. Oto||Oto - The Grove Party||Christian Democrats|
Yoshkar-Oto (literally, "red Oto") is a left-dissidence from Oto created in 1997 over perceived ideological triangulation; it has remained the only institutional opposition to the main party.