The Etruscan Republic was a nation based in the northern part of Italy between 367 BC and 13 AD. It was a powerful nation, engaging in three victorious wars against Safineim and forming and alliance with the Senones. Despite its influence, Etrusca was an unstable nation, as evidenced by the Etruscan rebellions, and its collapse after the third Safinei war. Its political system was almost always unstable, and when it was stable, it was ruled by a tyrannical upper class. Etrusca was ultimately a failure, collapsing into the secondary Etruscan Republic, a nation run by a tyrannical king. Despite this end though, Etrusca did influence the Italian peninsula, as well as western Europe, helping form early nations. Although it was never stable, The nation did help others become stable, thus leaving a lasting impression on the world.
While the Senone were attacking Rome, Roman influence over the Etruscans Collapsed under the pressure. Because of this, the Etruscans decided to completely reform their government, and become a self sufficient nation. In order to do this, some of the most powerful families in Etrusca met to discuss the government and how it would work. In the end, they came up with a cross between a Republic and an autocracy. Under the system, 47 elected members and 53 appointed members would serve on the senate under the king. Every two years, they would elect a Prince, to serve under the king. The system worked well, and a capital was established, and the Etruscan Republic was officially declared.
Fifty Years War
After Etrusca had taken over the Umbrians and the Safinei had taken much of southern Italy, conflict was bound to happen. Finally, war did break out, along the former border of the Roman Republic. Quickly, the war fell apart for both sides, each unable to mount an effective offense. Etrusca did make some gains, but these were largely offset by the huge amount of casualties. As the war dragged on the Etruscans gained a greater advantage, but combat was still slow. As the Etruscans closed in on Rome, the Safinei were forced to redouble their defenses, putting more men on the front. This slowed down the advance of the Etruscans just outside Veii, and again forced the war to a near halt.
Finally, the Etruscans launched their so called final campaign. It started with a mass attack on the Safinei defensive line, which quickly broke the line and took Veii. From there, the Etruscans used their existing momentum to move onto Rome, fighting and taking the city quickly. As the Safinei line continued to fall apart, the Etruscans took the opportunity to advance further. Multiple times, the Safinei tried to build up a defensive line, but each time failed, taking devastating causalities. However, as the Etruscans momentum slowed, the Safinei were able to set up a strong defense, eventually stopping the advance. This lead to a treaty, were each side got to keep the land they currently controlled.
With complaints about the Democracy - or lack of therefore - of Etrusca, the army of the Republic, which was a rebel army dedicated to taking down the Etruscan government. This inspired other Militia to rise across Etrusca, while the Army of the Republic itself stayed in South-Eastern Etrusca, which was former Umbrian territory. The smaller militas were quickly taken down by the dreadfully effective Dardanian Guard. Meanwhile, the main Etruscan army fought the better organized Army of the Republic. Once the Dardanian Guard destroyed the smaller militias, it joined the main army, and the combined force of the two armies crippled the rebels. Soon after, the rebels were disbanded. The former political structure did change, though it only became more authoritarian.
Second Safinei War
The second Safinei war was a massive and surprising success for the Etruscans, while a devastating failure for the Safineim. The fighting was intense - only lasting around six months - but it was decisive. Because the Etruscans fought for such a short amount of time, very little of the burden fell on the Etruscan populace, besides those living hear the border. This lead to a rapid rise of nationalism, and a smaller rise in economic growth. Ultimately, the war would only benefit Etrusca, while doing little to end the rivalry between Safineim and Etrusca.
Third Safinei War
The Third Safinei War (Known as the third Etruscan war to the Safinei) was a devastating war the Etruscans would fight in. While they technically "won" like the Safinei, they still collapsed in the end. The war started when a new king, Decius, decided to invade Safieim, and started to mass a huge army at the border between the two nations. While this drew some grumbles from the local populace, for the most part, it was tolerated. When the war started, the effects were minimal at first. However, as the war dragged on, it began to be a huge dead weight on the Etruscan economy. When Radarca essentially crushed Safineim, Etrusca's situation improved, at least temporarily.
However, within a year of Radarca's stunning success, all order collapsed on the battle field. It essentially became bands of Etruscans raiding Safinei towns, and the Safinei fighting back. This form of fighting was devastating to Etrusca, and their economy went from a slight slump to complete shambles in a matter of months. This slowly bled out both sides, and the "war" became less of a war, and more of just Chaos. Neither side had a coherent leader, and the Etruscans in particular had no control of their armed forces. Needless to say, this was hardly the ideal environment for either nation, and by 13 AD, they both collapsed.
After the government reforms, Etruscan politics took on a layer of intricacy. While the elected officials did have plenty of power, the elected Princes tended to come from the appointed members. This of course lead to a constant power struggle between the two parts of the senate. The king often intervened on the side of the appointed officials, but this did little to calm the animosity between the sides of the senate. While certain members of the senate often switched sides to support the group they weren't part of, the schism was clear in almost every decision the senate made.
After the rebellion, Etrusca became almost completely dominated by a few prominent families. Both the elected and appointed members of the senate were eliminated in favor a new system. In this system, anyone who wanted to run for senate had to be approved by the king. This ended up amounting to the former appointing system, as Kings would rarely approve competition, making the elections essentially a fraud. This gave the King control over most policy, and though the senate did disobey him on occasion, ultimate comtrol would always remain with him.
Even after the Etruscan rebellion, society as a whole was generally very optimistic. This made them far more likely than their Safinei counterparts to do risky business, or build personal fortunes through non-conventional means (or build personal fortunes at all). This made for a very rich society, and as a consequence, the ability to tear down their southern opponents. Most Etruscans had at least some measure of distaste for Safineim - whether for the people or the country itself. That was probably the only thing the society wasn't universally optimistic about, with the possible exception of trade.