From the late 20th Iraqi Kurdistan had started to experience further and further autonomy from the national government, eventually resulting in having it's own military, and the Iraqi armed forces barred from entering the area. However, with the rise of ISIL both the Iraqi and Syrian Kurdish regions started to find thier areas completely unoccupied by government forces, meaning that they had more autonomy.
In 2015 Turkey Shot down a Russian Jet. This caused a rise of tensions between the two powers, and Russia started to ramp up military pressure. However, it was suggested by one of Putin's ministers that rather than face open military confrontation, Turkey could be undermined in a different way.
As such, the Erbil Conference was called, inviting the Presidents of Iran, Iraq, Syria and Russia, as well as Kurdistan. After around a week of negiotiations were made, Kurdistan was given full autonomy.