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English Occupation (Welsh History Post Glyndwr)

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George Louis Hanover
Timeline: Welsh History Post Glyndwr

1st Emperor of the British Isles
21st November 1720 - 11th June 1727

Predecessor: New Creation
Successor: George II
Born: 28 May 1660
Hanover
Died: 11th June 1727
Osnabrück
Spouse: Sophia Dorothea of Celle

The period from August 1718 to January 1796 is known as the English Occupation. The title is slightly misleading as the State of England no longer existed. The United Kingdom of England and Scotland (UK-ES) was the legal name of the major Kingdom of the British Isles, with its kings claiming and using the titles, King of Ireland and King of Britain. With the conquest of Wales, George I of UK-ES began using the title, King of the Britons (a title previously claimed by the Welsh Kings) and indeed George's official title was "George, by the Grace of God, King of the United Kingdom of England & Scotland, King of Ireland, Wales and France, Emperor of the British Isles, Defender of the Faith, etc".


British Imperial Flag 1720-1796

Flag used by the Imperial British State; 1720-1796

The English Occupation

The English (Anglo-Scottish) Occupation is usually divided up by the decades of rule. With the first decade (1720's) also taking in the years 1718-19 which are usually accounted for as "Conquest Years" in the Welsh annals. Upon the signing of the Treaty of Manchester (November 21st 1720), an act of Parliament was passed creating the United Kingdom of Great Britain (more usually called the Imperial State of Britain). The same act granted the King the title of Emperor of the British Isles, showing his now complete control over the nation states of the islands. Within Wales itself, the Crown continued to be called the "Welsh" Crown, and the king also used the subsidiary titles "king of the Britons" as well as Prince of Gwynedd, thus showing his total absorption of the previous dynasty's titles. The Royal Coat of Arms was also
UK Coat of Arms 1720-1796

The Royal Arms of the UK-GB 1720-1796

changed to reflect the Crowns new reach, showing all the crowns under its control. 1st Quarter showing England and Scotland, 2nd Quarter France and Wales, 3rd Quarter Ireland and the 4th Quarter the Hanoverian territories in Germany.

The 1720's

This decade sees the initial pacification of Wales, the annexation treaty (the Treaty of Manchester) as well as some of the rebellions against Anglo-Scottish rule. The decade would not see Wales as a settled region of the new United Kingdom of Great Britain, but as the decade comes to a close, Anglo-Scottish rule is deepening over the country.



1719

January: Siege of Pembroke begins

February: Siege of Tenby begins

April: The county of Pembroke falls to the English

May: March into Ceredigion

June: Aberystwyth Castle surrenders. Harlech Castle surrenders

September: Tenby falls

October: Pembroke Castle surrenders


1720

February: The remainder of Powys falls under English control. English troops and ships mass on the North Welsh coast preparing to strike at Anglesey. Beaumaris Castle still resisting siege.

March: Gruffydd ap Goronwy, Lord of Caerleon leads the Rebellion of Gwent

July: The invasion of Anglesey and the capture of Gruffydd ap Goronwy. He is executed in Worcester along with other captured Gwent Rebellion leaders.

September: By Kings Writ (smuggled in from France) the Welsh Border Regiment (the Border's) founded as a rebellion Regiment.

November 21st: The Treaty of Manchester. The treaty (signed by the Lord-Archbishop of St Davids and the Earl of Anglesey) formally annexes Wales to the Anglo-Scottish Kingdom and provides the Duke of Newcastle as the first Governor-General of Wales.


1722

March: The 1st Invasion Attempt. Rhys sets out from France. Storms in the English Channel wreck the fleet and Rhys limps into port in Brittany.


1723

March to May: The Glamorgan-Gwent Rebellion sees the 'Borders' engage the English occupation army in a series of guerrilla atacks. The rebellion is crushed when the English sack Cardiff.

November: After several months of continued raids on English forts and supply columns, the Welsh Border Regiment is finally engaged in pitched battle. The officers are executed whilst the soldiers are sent to English colonies overseas


1725

June: Spies tip off the English who await the 2nd Invasion fleet of King Rhys. Forced to abandon his landings English Squadrons dog his path back to Brittany


1727

January: New anti Welsh laws are implemented. The Ecclesiastical Colleges are shut down.

March: Worcester rises up in rebellion. The population are then massacred as the English re-take control.

July: The Duke of Newcastle is replaced by Thomas Howard 8th Duke of Norfolk as Governor-General of Wales.


1729

April: Builth Wells rises in revolt,

July: Builth Wells raised to the ground

George Augustus Hanover
Timeline: Welsh History Post Glyndwr

2nd Emperor of the British Isles
11th June 1727 - 25th October 1760

Predecessor: George I
Successor: George III
Born: 10 November 1683
Herrenhausen Palace, Hanover
Died: 25 October 1760
Kensington Palace, London
Spouse: Caroline of Ansbach

The 1730's

This decade will see further integration with the rest of the United Kingdom, with taxes starting to be generated within the former Welsh Kingdom, and with Welshmen being introduced into the British Navy and Army. The decade would also witness the major Gwynedd Rebellion led by Lord of Cricceith. The decade would close with the Welsh coming the closest to re-attaining independence with the Pembrokeshire Rebellion aimed at combining with an invasion by King Rhys. Its failure almost condemned Rhys's political aspirations for independence for Wales.



1730

August: Naval Battle of Lands End sees the 3rd Invasion fleet defeated.


1732

January to April: Major rebellion in Gwynedd led by Lord Hywel of Cricceith. A simultaneous revolt in Ceredigion is quickly put down. Troops are moved north where a guerrilla war is fought for four months. The English are savage in the their attempts to put down the rebellion. In April Hywel is captured and executed and the rebellion ends.

June: The first born sons of all remaining Welsh Lords are taken hostage by the English authorities.

December: Death of the Duke of Norfolk and the appointment of the Duke of Rutland as 3rd Governor-General of Wales.


1736

March: Rhys leads the 4th Invasion Fleet. Atlantic storms again wreck the fleet.


1738

August: Appointment of George Cholmondeley, 3rd Earl of Cholmondeley as the 4th Governor-General of Wales.


1739

July to December: The Archbishop of Wales leads a rebellion in Pembrokshire to aid the landing of the 5th Invasion Fleet. The fleet however is delayed and doesn't make landfall until the December by which point the English Authorities have managed to put down the Rebellion. Rhys is defeated in the Battle of Pembroke.

The 1740's

This decade would see Wales destablise, with the failure of Rhys' 5th Invasion attempt prompting more stringent anti-Welsh measures being introduced. The banning of the Welsh language from public life, the closure of the monastic houses in Wales and the Roman Church being closely monitored. The British would also try an introduce Anglicanism into the kingdom during this period as well. The decade would also see by far the biggest rebellion, the Five Year Revolt, which whilst not being Wales wide did see vast tracts of the Welsh countryside become no-go areas to the English and Scottish occupiers. That Rhys was unable to capitalise on this revolt seemed to damn Wales to British rule to all but the most patriotic of Welshmen.


1740

March: The Earl of Cholmondeley orders the closure of all monastic houses in Wales. Whilst the Roman Catholic churches are allowed to continue providing pastoral services, the Monastic orders are deemed subversive.

August: The Church of England opens its first church in Ludlow


1743

January: After almost four years of relative peace the English execute 200 heads of gentry and lower nobility families


1744

March: Wales rises up in full Rebellion. The fortress and city of Caerodor taken from the English

April: The English move another army into Wales to deal with the rebellion


1745

January: Rhys tries to raise an Army to bring to Wales but cannot raise the funds.


1749

August: By Act of Parliament, the Welsh language was now formally banned within the United Kingdom from all aspects of public life

November: After five years of revolt English control is firm again. By the end of the month the fortress of Caerodor falls to the English

The 1750's

The final decade before the return of some semblance of Welsh independence. It would see a continuing hard line taken against symbols of Welsh independence with the continued crack down on the use of the Welsh language, the banning of prominent symbols of independence. It would also see the beginnings of an underground movement championing the use of songs such as Hen Wlad fy Nhadau and the use of the Dragon Standard.

1750

July: Rhys leads the 6th Invasion fleet and engages the English in the naval battle of Milford Haven. He is killed during the action


1753

June: Stricter anti-Welsh laws are introduced. The banning of the flying of pre-conquest Welsh standards, such as the flag of Neith or the Dragon standard. Many people are sent to the English Colonies in America.


1754

March: A Religious Ordinances Bill is passed whereby all Roman Catholic priests dying or leaving their posts within Wales are now to be replaced with Anglican priests.

August: The Duke of Manchester is replaced by the 3rd Duke of Argyll who moves the Welsh capital from Ludlow to Amwythig.


1756

September: The 16th September has over the last couple of decades been associated with the last successful revolt against English Rule, and this year riots occur across most of Wales. Argyll anticipating this has had troops stationed near most major centres to put down any riots that get out of hand.


1759

17th August 1759: With the successful landing of Rhisiart and the raising of the Dragon Standard the English Occupation is recorded as being at an end. The next 37 years are recorded as being the 2nd War of Welsh Independence

List of Governor-Generals of Wales

  1. Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne; 1720-1727
  2. Thomas Howard, 8th Duke of Norfolk; 1727-1732
  3. John Manners, 3rd Duke of Rutland; 1732-1738
  4. George Cholmondeley, 3rd Earl of Cholmondeley; 1738-1749
  5. Robert Montagu, 3rd Duke of Manchester; 1749-1754
  6. Archibald Campbell, 3rd Duke of Argyll; 1754-1760
  7. Augustus Henry FitzRoy, 3rd Duke of Grafton; 1760-1765
  8. Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis (The Earl Cornwallis); 1765-1769
  9. Richard Boyle, 2nd Earl of Shannon; 1769-1771
  10. John Stuart, 4th Earl of Bute & 1st Marquess of Bute; 1771-1778
  11. George Boscawen, 3rd Viscount Falmouth; 1778-1785
  12. George Nugent-Temple-Grenville, 1st Marquess of Buckingham (Former Foreign Secretary of the Anglo-Scottish State and leading negotiator with the Earl of Pembroke ending the 2nd War of Welsh Independence); 1785-1796

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