The name England is derived from the Old English Englaland which means "land of the Angles".
In 1455, the English Kingdom descended into a civil war known as the War of the Roses. The war was caused between to rival houses, the House of Lancaster and the House of York over who was the proper heir to the throne of England. The House of York ultimately won the conflict. The War of the Roses ended when Pierre Landais the Prime Minister of the Duchy of Brittany was bribed by King Richard III to betray Henry Tudor, the last major Lancastrian claimant, and set a trap for Henry in Vannes.