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|Kingdom of England|
(and largest city)
|Other cities||Manchester, Liverpool, Birmingham, Cardiff|
|Government||Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy|
|-||King||Edward X Westminster|
|-||First Minister||Daniel Craig|
|-||Second Minister||George Osborne|
|-||Norman invasion of England||1066|
|-||End of the English Revolution||March 11, 1969|
|Time zone||British Standard Time (UTC-1)|
|Date formats||DD/MM/YYYY (AD)|
|Drives on the||Left|
England is governed by the Parliament, a unicameral legislature. The First Minister of England, the head of government, is typically the head of the majority club in Parliament. The current First Minister is Daniel Craig, the leader of the centrist Silver Lions Club.
Revolt of 1381
The Revolt of 1381 began as a result of heavy taxes and other things caused by the Hundred Years' War. Rebels led by Wat Tyler killed King Richard II. The retribution from his successor, John II, was harsh and achieved the opposite of what the rebels had hoped for. The crushing of the rebellion intensified the power of the crown at the expense of the people.
Wars of the English Succession (15th century)
In the process of becoming king, John II bypassing the legal heir, Roger Mortimer. This came back to affect England after John's death with Roger's brother Edmund became the figurehead of a rebellion against John's son, Henry IV. The declaration of Edmund as King Edmund I began the first phase of the Wars of the English Succession, which plagued the nation for the next century. Owain Glyndwr's rebellion in Wales was a critical part of Edmund's success. With Henry being forced to divide his attention between English lords backing Edmund and Owain attacking the marches, the Mortimer men were able to defeat Henry at Southampton in 1411. Henry fled across the Channel to France. On his deathbad, Edmund named his nephew Henry Percy heir to England, bypassing his niece Anne, who was his older brother's daughter. This later led to York's Rebellion, where Henry V was deposed by the Duke of York, who become Richard III. Richard III maintained peace in England thereafter.
The peace lasted for a while, until Henry IV's son, John III, gained the support of France. The claimant John III alienated many key French people, most notably the Dauphin of France, as he presented a serious threat to the Dauphin's inheritance. Upon the death of Charles VI of France, John III was proclaimed King of England and France by certain forces. Richard III of England responded by allying himself with the Dauphin, now Charles VII. However, the price of this alliance was Normandy. Richard III died at the Battle of Agincourt, despite winning that battle. His son Richard succeeded him as Richard IV. Richard and Charles successfully defeated Henry. The two victorious kings reached a peace in the Hundred Years' War, with Normandy being ceded to England in exchange for the English abandoning their claim to France. The king's heir, Edward, Duke of Normandy, married Anne of France to secure the peace. This ended the French phase.
Upon Richard IV's death, the heir to the Percys and Henry V, John Clifford, started an uprising. Clifford killed the Duke of York before King Edward IV killed him, ending the Clifford line and the Percy claim to England. After the war, Edward alienated one of his chief allies, the Earl of Warwick, creating the underlying tensions that led to Warwick's Rebellion. Edward IV was killed by the Earl of Warwick. John, the son of Henry V, was proclaimed King John III by these rebels. Edward IV's son, Edward V, was across the Channel in his Norman lands when he heard the news. Edward secured the alliance with Brittany his father had sought by marrying Anne of Brittany. Edward V and the Bretons crossed the Channel and put down Warwick's Rebellion. Warwick himself was executed and his titles passed to his grandson, the king's cousin and future Duke of Clarence.
Upon the death of Charles VIII of France in 1498, Edward V decided to press his claim to France, as his mother was French. This ended the long peace between England and France achieved by his grandfather. Edward's war initially went well due to the advantage of his attack being unexpected by the French. However, France rallied behind their new king, Louis XII, and successfully drove the English back across the Channel. Edward V died in the process, succeeded by his five year old son, Richard V. Richard's uncle, the Duke of York, continued the war on behalf on his nephew, hoping to at least gain back Normandy. Louis XII sent word to John Meredith, the Prince of Wales and heir to the Lancastrian claim, to invade England. John did invade England, destroying the first force led by the Duke of Clarence. Clarence's death shattered the English defense, allowing the Welsh to move on London, gaining supporters as they went. London was captured without a fight, resulting in the death of Richard V. His uncle named himself king and was forced to return to England from Normandy. However, his ship was lost while crossing the Channel. Thus, John Meredith had eliminated the biggest threat to his claim. Elizabeth, the daughter of Edward V, was proclaimed queen by her cousin the Duke of Gloucester, who escaped to Brittany to raise an army against Meredith. Gloucester and Elizabeth sailed for England, landing in Cornwall, where Elizabeth's base of support was strongest, and marched northeast, attempting to meet up with another army led by Gloucester's brother. John V anticipated this and ambushed Gloucester's army and captured Elizabeth. With Elizabeth in the king's custody, the new Duke of Gloucester surrendered. Gloucester was imprisoned in the Tower of London for the rest of his life, transferring the Yorkist claim to their cousins of the Pole family. Meanwhile, John V betrothed Elizabeth to his son, John, the Prince of Wales and began the Meredith period.
Meredith and Stafford periods
John V thought he had achieved peace by defeating the Gloucesters, but the peace only lasted until his grandson, John VII. The Northern Schism had created deep rifts in England and John VI's conversion to the Northernist Church caused waves in England. His son John VI had been strongly raised in the Catholic faith by his mother. John VII, despite his personal convictions attempted to maintain peace between the two rival faiths. He was lenient to Northernists and Catholics alike and raised his son and heir John in the Northernist way. However, the death of Prince John meant John VII's heir was his Catholic French niece Elizabeth, leading to the people of England seeking out the secondary heir of the Plantagenet dynasty, the Earl of Stafford, descended from Richard VI's daughter. John VII's death triggered the final phase of the Wars of Succession. The French conquered English possessions on the mainland and then crossed the Channel to England only to be swiftly defeated by Stafford and his allies. The Earl of Stafford was crowned as Richard VII and then invaded France to conquer Brittany and Normandy again. The new king of France was forced to make peace and accept the territorial status quo. Richard VII married Elizabeth to his son Edmund to end French pretensions to the throne and to unify the two warring claims.
The establishment of the Stafford dynasty began a long peace in England that saw its economic growth and emergence as a power on the global scale. The Staffords established Northernism as the dominant faith of England but failed to spread it to Ireland, thus causing religious tension between the two kingdoms.
English Civil War
The Pole peace ended with the death of Edward VII. Edward had two children, his daughter Elizabeth from his first Northernist English wife and his son Edward from his Catholic Orthodox French wife. Elizabeth had been the heir for most of her life until Edward was born in the last years of his father's reign. The English greatly despised Prince Edward's mother and the feeling was mutual. Thus, when Edward was proclaimed king in London, Elizabeth was declared queen, beginning the English Civil War. The war marked the creation of the two original English political clubs, the Falcons, supporting Elizabeth, and the Mountaineers, supporting Edward. Although Edward emerged victorious in the war, he was murdered in the Gunpowder Plot when the royal residences were destroyed by Falcons. The crown then passed legally to Alexis, Emperor of Russia, but he turned it down and abandoned all Russian pretensions to the English throne. His refusal, even for his second son, created problems in England as they now had to call upon Luxembourg relations, specifically Infante John of Castile. France was strongly opposed to John taking the English throne, as it meant France would be completely surrounded by Luxembourgs.
Interregnum and Interbellum
The period between the death of Edward VIII and the ascension of Infante John is known as the English Interregnum. During the Interregnum, Parliament wielded absolute power in England. This is marked as the beginning of the decline of royal power and the rise of the First Minister. The First Minister was initially the leader of the Mountaineers in Parliament, Lord John Marbury. Marbury kept his position when Infante John arrived in England, as the new king spoke no English and was treated as a foreigner by everyone. John VIII's reign was remarkable for the establishment of new English colonies in Arcadia, specifically Carolina and Queensland. The power of the First Minister continued to expand under the reign of John's daughter Elizabeth IV. However, she attempted to divert power to her husband, John Churchill, the Duke of Marlborough. Marlborough frequently butted heads with the heads of Parliament. He lost his powers to fight Parliament when Elizabeth IV died and was succeeded by her daughter Elizabeth V. Elizabeth V was married to Charles of Austria, second son of the Holy Roman Emperor. Elizabeth and Charles were both in the Castilian line of succession, and when King Ferdinand VI of Castile died, England and Austria jointly declared war on the French Philip, who had been named heir by Ferdinand. Ultimately, the Anglo-Austrian claim lost and was ended when Elizabeth died.
English Wars of Religion
However, the War of the Castilian Succession was followed in rapid succession by the English War of Religion. Elizabeth's heir was her nephew Charles, Duke of Rothesay, a Scottish Catholic. The Scottish had been fighting the English all throughout the Castilian war and the English were quick to reject him. Scotland and France invaded England to press the Scottish claim to the throne, but England rallied behind Lord Bolton, the Duke of Cumberland, who had recently returned from Castile. The French swept through southern England, forcing the Boltons and their supporters to hide in the English countryside. Charles's reign was cut short at the St. Andrew's Day Massacre when the Stewarts and many of their close relations were massacred after attending service at Westminster Abbey. Parliament then summoned Bolton to be crowned, ushering in a new era of peace in England.
During the rule of the Boltons, England generally attempted to avoid getting involved in continental struggles. England became more oriented towards overseas goals, seizing the entirety of New Netherland from the Dutch and New Scotland from the Scottish. England successfully defended itself when the Dutch attempted to take back their colony but lost the War of the Scottish Succession to the French. England also became heavily involved in India, fighting proxy wars agains the French for domination of the region. England was briefly involved in the War of Austrian Succession, but the death of Edmund IV in the battlefield led to England withdrawing its forces from the continent. England later became involved in the Second Great War, primarily fighting the French in Arcadia and India. The Arcadian colonies were lost in the Arcadian Revolution during the reign of Edmund VI, marking the beginning of the decline of England. The Arcadian loyalists fled to West Africa, where they established the Kingdom of Fidelia, with a system of government similar to the English one and the English king as their monarch. England suffered great losses in the Third Great War, culminating in the Napoleonic invasion of England and the end of English presence in Arcadia. Napoleon's 1815 invasion is regarded as the end of the Edmundian Era of prosperity and the shift to the more aggressive anti-Roman foreign policy.
Early modern period
The Parliament used to have two houses, the House of Lords and the House of Commons. The House of Lords consisted of members of the peerage of England. It was abolished in the aftermath of the English Revolution as part of the terms of peace.
Mountaineers (right), Silver Lions (center), Eagles (left)