Kingdom of England and Wales
Kingdom of England
927–1682 Flag of England.svg
Flag of England.svg Lesser Coat of Arms of England (TFC).svg
Flag of England Coat of arms
Map of each English Earl's land in 1065
Capital Two
  • Winchester (Until 1301)
  • London (After 1301)
Languages Several
Religion Christianity
Government Monarchy
 •  First Æthelstan
 • Last Arnold II
Historical Era Medieval Era
 •  Unification Circa 927
 •  English Civil War 1682
 •  1500 est. 2.3 million 
Currency Pound Sterling

England, also called The Kingdom of England, or, later in history, The Kingdom of England and Wales, was a medieval kingdom situated on the British Isles, sharing a border with Scotland and a maritime border with Ireland and France. For most of its existence, England was an economic and political powerhouse, its sphere of influence stretching across the British Isles and North Sea, and often south to France and the Holy Roman Empire. Due to its powerful location, England was widely considered one of the most powerful nations in Europe, even during its traumatic Era of uncertainty.

England is divided into eight Earldoms, Mercia, Wessex, Huntington, Northumbria, East Anglia, York, Wales and Kent. The capital, Winchester (and later London), were located in Wessex and Kent, respectively, but in practice were under the King's direct control.


The kingdom of England emerged from the gradual unification of the early medieval Anglo-Saxon kingdoms known as the Heptarchy: East Anglia, Mercia, Northumbria, Kent, Essex, Sussex, and Wessex. The Viking invasions of the 9th century upset the balance of power between the English kingdoms, and native Anglo-Saxon life in general. The English lands were unified in the 10th century in a reconquest completed by King Æthelstan in 927 CE.

The first notable event England experienced was probably its fall to Cnut and his North Sea Empire. For a time, it looked like this would be the end of England's independence, and it would be destined to forever be in the Scandinavian Sphere of influence. However, Cnut's empire proved to be a lot more Cnut than Empire, and collapsed soon after his death, once again leaving England independent once again.



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