In 1832 at only two years of age when he was born Emperor Frederich I ascended the throne of his father. His mother, Queen Dowager Sophie became regent.
Economic Downturn & Political Reform
For the first time in the short history of the European Empire there was a recession. There were hunger riots throughout Europe, and a few plots to overthrow the monarchy. Queen Dowager Sophie is blamed and thrown out of the regency and replaced with Duke Rupert of Northumberland in 1834. He proposes a change and a new Constitution is drawn up. A Parliament is formed with a House of Nobility, full of people appointed by the Emperor and a more powerful House of the People, which receives representatives from each nation depending on its status. Kingdoms get 5 representatives. Duchies get 3. Principalities get 1. Each representative must be approved by the leader of their respective Kingdom/Duchy/Principality as well as the Emperor. Certain civil liberties are also guaranteed.
While this alleviates some tensions Pedro VI who had just inherited the throne of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves but who currently only controls Brazil is putting into motion a plan his father, Pedro V had worked on before him to liberate the Portugal and the Algarves. With a transition in government and a poor economy Pedro VI takes advantage of the news and prepares for the invasion.
In 1835 just as the first Prime Minister of Europe had been elected the Portuguese Navy lands in the Azores, the Cape Verde Islands, and Portugal and the Algarves itself. European and American soldiers are taken by surprise. Within a month these lands are liberated, and the humiliating Treaty of Lisboa is signed.
In 1836 there is an uprising in Spain, which touches off several more uprisings between 1836-1844. Parliament is dissolved and emergency rule declared in 1837 as a result of this. Not only does nationalism stir uprisings, but also a growing interest in radical philosophy. In 1840 Pierre-Joseph Proudhon's publication of What Is Property? leads to a growing interest in radical change. Proudhon's Federation of Militants emerges in 1842. A group committed to the restoration of the House of Bourbon in France also emerges. Several groups of convention Republicans are also active. In 1844 the last state, England leaves the empire leaving the European Empire only in control of France. By decree it reverts to the French Empire, but France is in a revolution of its own. King Pierre de Gaulle of France saw the Kingdom of France and the European Empire as two distinct entities and did not welcome the abolition of his position. France collapses and is under the control of a number of factions vying for political power. In 1845 the palace is stormed by and the Regent and the King, although only 15 years old is executed by guillotine. In the commotion his 13-year old brother Prince Ferdinand manages to escape to the United States and would later marry Princess Mary, the daughter of the future Queen Mary I and in 1849 granted the title and position of Duke of Yucatan, a position he would hold until 1867 when the Bonaparte throne was restored in France.
In 1850 the revolution ends with the establishment of the Free Federation of France, founded on the anarchist and mutualist principles of Proudhon. While officially denying that it is a government it has effective control over France.
A number of new states emerged from this war:
- Scholars dispute whether the Free Federation of France constituted a state.