The Emirate of Rum is the oldest and most enduring Islamic state in Europe as it has stood in Europe independent as of 759 until the Late XIII century when the city of Rum known by the Latin and Christian armies of the west as Constantinople was taken after a three year continuous siege by the Christian coalition between Cyprus, Athenas and Rome. The city is ephemerally recovered to the Islam in 1358 when the Turks Seljucids manage to take the city their presence. Whatsoever, it's one of the most cruel eras that the city endured finishing by 1372 with the coalition retaking the city.
Fall of Constantinople
The city was in July of 675 taken by the Muslim forces of the Ummayads finishing the Christian and the antiquity in the eastern parts of the Mediterranean. The city was looted and almost burned to dust, this fate was only avoided due to the Caliph's wish to make the humiliation bigger by keeping the city and later to make the city a capital center of the Islamic world as it received its new name Madinat al-Rasul Allah Rum or the city of the messengers of god Rum.
Greek RebellionFrom 719 to 741 the Greek population of Eastern Anatolia and Southern Greece, the city was several times besieged but never successfully taken by Flavios Eugenetas Basileos Rhomaioi. The most important battle near Rum is the battle of Al-adraniya, which was the greatest success of the Rhomaioi Greeks setting the ephemeral kingdom of Rhomania which capital was Mileto. In 732 the greatest extension of the kingdom was achieved isolating the Islamic Stronghold of the Golden horde from Musiyah (Moesia) and taking over The Calcidic Peninsula and Thessalonika.The revolt begin to collapse as Flavios was almost killed by a coup which forced him at 33 years of life to flee to Rhodes and later to Crete where he would become a military leader and noble governor of one of the cities within the kingdom. His successor leading the revolt was Arkadios Metatauricos Called this way due to his Sarmatian origin he failed to keep the key city of Al-adraniya forcing the armies to march south to the Greek controlled land, where they were caught by the Islamic armies in the battle of Thessalonika lost where he was killed in 738. The rest of the three years was followed by the fragmentation of the rebels into smaller lordships one by one falling, being the last one the Basilea Ton Athena capitulating in 741 Finishing the Greek uprising.
Rise of the Emirate
The emirate arose in 755 as the Ummayad family fled Damascus, the capital of the Caliphate, fleeing from the rising Abbasids which would initiate the mission of exterminating the Ummayad to consolidate their own power. With the influence they held they managed to overrun the Ummayad empire but were unable to enter Anatolia thanks to the Greek Islamic population resistance and due to the military being loyal to the Ummayads which meant that despite being on the edge of the collapse the Ummayads were still strong enough to fight back. The Ummayads were not the only ones to secede from the caliphate - the Shi'a Caliphate of Egypt did as well but their independence was ephemeral lasting for little over a decade.
Ummayad Dynasty 759 - 1025
Work in progress