The Emirate of Bukhara (Uzbek: Buxoro Amirligi, Tajik: Amorati Bukhoro, Russian, the current inter-communication language: Эмират Бухара, Latinized into Emirat Buhara) is a nation in the former central-eastern Uzbek SSR of the Soviet Union. The Emirate has been independent since the Bukharan Civil War of October and early November, 2010, in which the royalist faction, led by Shukria Raad Alimi, defeated the Muslim Liberation Army and expelled them from Bukharan territory. Before the Civil War, the Emirate of Bukhara was a puppet of the MLA, which used it as a fighting front against Socialist Siberia and its puppets.
- Main article: History of the Emirate of Bukhara
Bukhara is the largest state in former Uzbek territory. It takes over half of Uzbekistan's former territory. Of the Uzbek regions of old, there are only a few that do not belong to Bukhara. These are the Karakalpakstan Autonomous Republic, the shahar of Toshkent and the viloyatlar of Sirdaryo, Toshkent, Namangan, Farg'ona, Andijon and Xorazm.
Bukhara, however, has only one land border with one other nation, which is with the Khanate of Khiva.
Most of the population of the Emirate of Bukhara follows Sunni Islam. However, due to the effects of Doomsday and the MLA upon credibility, most Muslim Bukharans are divided into two: The fundamentalist rulers and the non-religious majority. Shukria Raad Alimi is part of the later, while most of the Sunni politicians and rulers of the Emirate are of the former.
The next most important religions in the Emirate are Sufi and Shia Islam. Although both this sects are officially a minority, they get greater benefits from the MLA, due to the Iranian origins of it. The Shia Bukharans form the majority of politicians and rulers of the Emirate, and are mostly fundamentalist.
Atheists are fourth in the Emirate, due to Doomsday and the former Soviet occupation.
Jews are extremely important on the Bukharan religious scene. The Bukharan Jews, although the next great religious group, they are a shadow of their former selves, as many had emigrated to Israel. Bukhori is a recognized language in Bukharan politics. However, unofficial groups of MLA members in Bukhara persecute and kill Jews. The Jews that remain are usually completely opposing to the government, and most of them are members of the royalist faction.
Last on the Bukharan religious scene is Christianity. Brought by the Soviets and earlier the Russians, the Christians from the Emirate had a boom in the early 1990's, but are being persecuted by the MLA, and as the Jews on Bukhara, most are members of the royalist faction and are anti-government.
Bukhara has a total population of 12,302,996, the largest of the autonomous Central Asian states and the second largest of the former Soviet Union after Socialist Siberia. About 8,502,996 of them reside in the former Uzbek SSR, which means Bukhara has slightly under half of the population Uzbekistan had in 1983. The largest city in Bukhara is Samarkand, followed by Bukhara and Chardjul (Chardzou viloyat) and Osh in Tajikistan Military Province.
Before Doomsday, Bukhara's ethnic majority was officially Tajik, a Perso-Iranian group. Bukhara, along with Samarkand, were the only cities in the Uzbek SSR with a Tajik culture. However, following the census of 1990 (the first Bukharan census), it was clear that the Turkic Uzbeks had replaced the Tajik as a majority, thanks to great emigration from survivors from Afghanistan, East Uzbekistan and the Karalparak zone. A great majority of Bukharans, Tajik and Uzbek alike, are mostly Muslim. The Muslims in Bukhara are mostly Sunni, although the minorities (mostly Sufi, but a large minority is Shi'a) are important, and are one of the greatest religious minorities on Bukhara. Great Jewish minorities exist as well, and Christians and atheists are, although uncommon, existing.
Bukhara's population has had a population boom recently; slightly over 25% of the population is under 14.
Samarkand and Bukhara were somewhat famous as cultural strongholds, and as strong melting pot of the cultures around the cities. As some people call it, Samarkand, "Crossroad of Cultures", has a characteristic Central Asian/Turkic culture and architecture. However, the Chinese, Slavic and
Persian cultures make great influences upon both Samarkand and Bukhara are great.
Both Samarkand and Bukhara are candidates for the LoNESCO (League of Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) World Heritage Sites program. more to come ...
After the Bukharan Civil War, the Emirate of Bukhara has been a secular, constitutional monarchy. The head of state is the Emir, currently Shukria Raad Alimi. The emir has several powers, but most of the government's powers belong to the democratically-elected Prime Minister, currently wikipedia:Anvar Juraboev.
The Prime Minister is the chief of government of the Emirate of Bukhara. Anvar Juraboev, the first and current Prime Minister of Bukhara, is currently the leader of the majority party of the Emirate, currently the Unity Party. The Prime Minister is to be chosen once every four years, and can serve an indefinite number of terms.
There are several Ministers, which control several departments of the Emirate's executive branch. There are cabinet ministers, which commands each ministry's policies. They are very crucial in the government of the Emirate. They must act by the Emir's direction if there's a direction, but if there's no direction, they may act under their own decision. The ministries are:
- Ministry of Interior Affairs
- Ministry of Finances
- Ministry of Defense
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs
- Ministry of Justice
- Ministry of Agriculture
- Ministry of Infrastructure
- Ministry of Health
- Ministry of Education
- Ministry of Culture
- Ministry of Housing
- Ministry of Labor
- Ministry of Transportation
- Ministry of Energy
- Ministry of Intelligence
The Emir's Assembly makes up the legislative branch of the Bukharan government. It currently resides within the city of Bukhara, within the Bukharan Cultural Center. It is an unicameral legislative group of 500 people. It retains absolute legislative power since the Bukharan Civil War. although before it the Emir controlled the legislative system.
The Bukharan judiciary system is divided into several different courts. The most important of these is the High Council of Bukhara, which has the ultimate saying in judicial questions and operations.
Bukhara is divided into six civilian administrative divisions ( Viloyat, plural Viloyatlar), one Independent City (shahar, e.g Bukhara shahar) and one military province. A viloyat is led by a democratically-elected governor. The provinces then have several districts in each province. The Emirate inherited the name viloyat from the Uzbek SSR, and the Emirate is composed of the viloyatlar of Bukhara, Jizzakh, Navoiy, Qashqadaryo, Samarkand, and Surxondaryo. During the MLA reign, this provinces remained the same. After the Bukharan Civil War, the only changes were that the city of Bukhara itself was made a shahar, or Independent City, and that the viloyat of Surxondaryo was made into a military province.
In January 27, 2011, two military provinces were added: Tojikiston and Turkmaniston. Turkmaniston was ascended to a full viloyat in June 18, and renamed Chardzhou as well.
There are many political parties in the Emirate of Bukhara. Most of them have formed on the last year, as before the Bukharan Civil War, the Emirate was a single-party state.
Uzbekistan Social Liberal Party
The Uzbekistan Social Liberal party is the current majority of the Emirate's government makeup. Islam Karimov, the current Prime Minister of Uzbekistan, is member of this party. It is considered to be a center-left political party, but supports the monarchy as well. Out of the 500 members of the Emir's Assembly, 150 are from this political party.
People's Democratic Party
The People's Democratic Party is a Bukharan opposition to the monarchy. The Communist army, which was disbanded the same day Jizzakh fell to the Bukharan Royalists, formed this party the day after Bukhara fell to royalist forces. The party seeks unification with the Socialist Union, and therefore it's badly seen throughout the totality of Bukhara. 100 seats of the Assembly are in the People's Democratic Power's hands.
Self-Sacrifice National Democratic Party
The Self-Sacrifice National Democratic Party is a conservative and nationalist party, in favour of the monarchy, although would wish for more conservatism within the party. 30 seats of the Assembly are Self Sacrifice National Democratic Party.
National Revival Democratic Party
The National Revival Democratic Party is a party with the same ideals than the Self-Sacrifice National Democratic party, and talks have been made between both in favour of a merger. 20 seats of the Assembly belong to the National Revival Democratic Party.
Unity is a center-left party, which wants a union with other nations in former Uzbekistan, such as the Khanate of Kokand or the Khanate of Khiva. 200 seats of the Assembly belong to Unity.
Hizb ut-Tahrir is an illegal ultra-right party which wants the creation of a new Caliphate. It shares the ideals of the Muslim Liberation Army. It was outlawed by Shukria Raad Alimi in late 2010.
The parliamentary elections, scheduled to begin in November 21 of 2011 were delayed ten days. The results ended up in victory for Anvar Juraboev and his Unity Party.
The Bukharan Armed Forces are divided into two branches: the Bukharan Royal Army, and the Emirate Air Force. In most of the time that the Emirate has existed, the armed forces have been concerned over the army, as only two airports exist in Bukhara and both of them are mostly in civilian uses, although under MLA rule the airports had been transformed to military ones. The army has been a Bukharan instrument to defeat the last pockets of resistance of the Muslim Liberation Army in Bukharan territory. There is no army, as Bukhara is a nation with no seas and few rivers and lakes, although some new lakes have formed since Doomsday. The Bukharan Air Force is basically nothing more than a few commercial and Soviet military planes that were rescued after Doomsday, although from 2005 on the Emirate had started to make their own aircraft with the military industrialization program of the MLA. The Bukharan Armed Forces in all have approximately 20,000 personnel (although in MLA times the number had once been as high as 150,000). This is composed of 10,000 active service personal, 2500 reserve personnel and 7500 paramilitary personnel.
Commerce and Trade
Bukhara has few international trade relationships due to its isolation from the rest of the world. Although originally the Emirate was within Silk Road territory, but both ends of the Road were obliterated. There isn't much international trade within Bukhara's trade even. To the south, there's the MLA and Iran. Both nations are in terrible relationships with the Emirate since the Bukharan Civil War, and trade has frozen. To the east, there's the Socialist Union, which the Bukharans have stopped trade with in order to end Socialist influence in Bukharan economics. The main trading partners of Bukhara are nearby Khanates of Aralia, Khiva and Kokand.
Recent industrialization programs have been started by the Emirate's new government. An industrialization program had existed earlier, during MLA time. However, during the time the industry was mostly constructed around military production, while in the new Emirate, it will be based upon commercial and civil production.
Although industrialization has happened in the last twenty years, 60% of the population of Bukhara still has to do with agriculture: Either in producing it or in trading it within the nation. Uzbekistan's main agricultural products are cotton and grain. Agriculture occurs in every viloyat in a heavy way excepting for the military province of Surxondaryo, which is mostly a desert province, excepting for the borders of the Amu Darya river, as few lakes have arisen there since Doomsday, unlike most of the rest of the Emirate of Bukhara.
the Emirate of Bukhara is the main producer of many different natural resources. Gold is the largest of those. Bukhara has gigantic gold mines, which are the fourth largest in the world. Bukhara also has significant reserves of uranium, tin, copper, and many others. However, in difference of most of Central Asia, Bukhara has almost no oil reserves, leading to energy problems.
Bukhara maintains few relationships with the rest of the world. Currently, Bukhara has ambassadors in Azerbaijan, Georgia, Khiva, Kokand and Murghob. Bukhara also had an embassy in Aralia, but in January of 2010 the Bukharan administrations ended it in fear of being invaded by Socialist Siberia. Since the end of the Bukharan Civil War, the Emirate has tried to open its borders and reconnect with the world. However, they haven't established relationships with nations out of the Middle East and Central Asia. There has been minimal diplomatic contact between the Emirate of Bukhara and other nations further away from Central Asia, like the GSU or Sri Lanka. Bukhara submitted an application to join the League of Nations in early 2010, but was blocked by Socialist Siberia.