OTL Eighth Century Ninth Century

Arab Invasion of Hind

Battle of Rajasthan

Main Article: Battle of Rajasthan

The Battle of Rajasthan was a battle between Hindu states and the Umayyad Caliphate in 730 AD. The Hindu states were at first successful in repelling the Arabs but, ultimately, the Hindu states involved in the conflict were defeated due to the greater numbers of the Arabs despite much bloodshed occurring. It proved the bravery and valour of Hindus but, despite it, the Hindus lost Rajasthan to the Arabs. The war made the Arabs realize that the Arab invasion of Hind would be very difficult, and a massive troop buildup along the new Hindu-Arab border was made.


Arabs invaded Punjab in 731 AD, where many thousands of troops were slaughtered and, famously, the Arabs began with a 200,000 person strong army and ended with 150,000 troops alive. Despite this slaughter, the Arabs conquered the entirety of Punjab by 732 AD. After the Battle of Punjab, many Indians defected to the Arabs and were captured. Due to this, many Indian techniques were learned by the Arabs and the advance continued the following year. Delhi fell to the Umayyads the following year and a final push against the Pala in 736 AD led to a stall in the war as Muslim advance slowed heavily. A new technique of harassment and raids began for 5 years before the Pala were defeated in a similar ease as with the Sassanians in 741 AD. The Indian campaign took a massive troop buildup and ten years, but the wealth in diamonds, gold, silver, and knowledge would contribute to the Caliphate. However, the Hindu people were dhimmis, or infidels, despite their high level of intelligence and the jizya tax on Hind was increased further and further, to the point that the tax was so high that people would have to give away all crops grown and starve to death or convert by 745 AD. Many Hindus fled to Southeast Asia in the years between the invasion of Hind and the rise of the Abbasids.

Abbasid Rise

However, the invasion of Hind caused worsening conditions in the caliphate and, in 745 AD, a civil war began between the Abbasid family and the ruling Umayyads. Eventually, support from the widespread populace led to an Abbasid victory in 747 AD. The Abbasids formed a caliphate in most territory ruled by the Umayyads, while Al-Andalus (OTL Portugal and most of Spain) remained under Umayyad control. With this, the Golden Age of Islam began despite the military weakening of Caliphate.

Battle of Talas

Islamic troops invaded Central Asia and, in 751, a border between the Abbasids and the Tang Empire existed. The Tang, wanting to expand, invaded the Abbasid-ruled region of Talas. The battle ended with a Tang victory and the expansion of the Tang. However, this expansion would bankrupt the Tang.

Yan Dynasty

The Yan Dynasty was established after the bankruptcy of the Tang and came to power in a bloody rebellion. The Yan were weak and lost most of Central Asia to Turkic tribes in 765. The fall of the Tang brought an end to the golden age in China.

Frankish invasions of the Umayyad

The Frankish Empire invaded the Umayyad Caliphate on the behalf of Asturias in 755 AD. By 760, Al-Andalus was given to Asturias.

Rise of Charlemagne

The ruling Frankish dynasty, the Merovingians, began to decline. The first Carolingian, Charlemagne, became the King of the Franks in 770. His reign began an era of peace and a period of newfound strength for the Franks as the territory held by the Franks came to be known as Francia. Charlemagne realized that, in order to keep Francia from falling to Islam, he needed to centralize the nation. He established the denarius as the currency of Francia. However, despite these reforms, the feudal system remained.

Chalukya-Muslim War

The Chalukya Empire and a few insignificant kingdoms were the only independent nations in the Hindu suncontinent. The empire was angry over the reign of the Muslims in northern Hind. However, Muslim soldiers patrolled the border between the two until the series of losses suffered from the Abbasids. By 784, the Chalukyas thought of it to be a good idea to invade the Abbasids. However, in the war, half of the Chalukya Empire had fallen to Islam. The Chalukyas immediately sued for peace. The war proved the power of the Muslims and the Golden Age of Islam continued as Hindu and Persian influences began to take hold of the Muslim world.

Abu Bakr II's Invasion

The brief period of Asturian rule came to an end after Abu Bakr II, a noble, invaded Asturias and re-established Al-Andalus as an independent emirate in 790. He also invaded Asturias proper and reduced it to a small vassal of Al-Andalus. The fact that he re-established Islam in Iberia with mercenaries is amazing.

Southeast Asia, Haven for the Infidels

Srivijaya was a Malay empire that was very prosperous. It was a good place for Hindu Buddhists to flee to avoid conversion. Many of these people were well educated and, culturally, Malays and pre-Islamic Hindus were very similar. Many Hindus also fled to all regions of mainland Southeast Asia except Dai Viet because their cultures were linked to pre-Islamic Hindu culture as well. In expanding Kambuja, Hindus contributed to its society and, in addition, also established Nagari as the script of Kambuja. To this day, Nagari is used in all of Southeast Asia. In Kambuja, Hindus helped the empire to expand rapidly and compete with Srivijaya, which was beginning to dominate over its enemy Java. Srivijaya was dominating the Malay archipelago.

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